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Accueil du site → Projets de développement → Projets de recherche pour le Développement → 2020 → GENOMIC TOOLS TO MONITOR AND EXPLOIT MICROBIAL DIVERSITY FOR AGRICULTURAL DISEASE AND ARIDLAND MANAGEMENT

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 2020

GENOMIC TOOLS TO MONITOR AND EXPLOIT MICROBIAL DIVERSITY FOR AGRICULTURAL DISEASE AND ARIDLAND MANAGEMENT

Microbial Diversity Disease Aridland

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Institute of Food and Agriculture

Titre : GENOMIC TOOLS TO MONITOR AND EXPLOIT MICROBIAL DIVERSITY FOR AGRICULTURAL DISEASE AND ARIDLAND MANAGEMENT

Identification : 1020480

Pays : Etats Unis

Durée : START : 06 JAN 2020 — TERM : 30 SEP 2023

Résumé
Microbes play important roles in natural and human managed ecosystems. Objective 1 focuses on understanding how microbial communities are integral to the development and promotion of healthy soils. Their overall role in arid soils is less well understood requires study of specific fungi and bacteria which may be indicators or regulators of soil health. Tools to monitor the microbial composition is important for efficient land management practices. In arid regions biological crusts are results of cooperation between bacteria and fungi and their presence can improve soil moisture, promote nutrient exchange, and reduce dust through aggregation of soils. This project will explore the microbial community makeup of these crusts to better catalog processes that support their formation, restoration after damage, and overall impact on the health of soils. This work will take place in managed public lands to study the microbial makeup in undisturbed, health biological crusts. Measurements of plant health in fields with adjacent crusts will be compared to those without to test whether promotion of crusts within agriculture fields can benefit soil moisture and nutrient availability. Objective 2 focuses on microbes associated with the shot hole borer beetle which carries fungi that are causing disease in avocado and a multitude of trees in Southern California. The work will focus on native microbial communities of trees and how they respond to the introduction of the Fusarium fungus, identification of antagonistic bacteria or fungi that can impede growth of Fusarium, and genetic studies of the beetle-carried fungi to track spread and possibility of sexual reproduction among isolates. Objective 3 focuses on acquisition of fungicide resistance in post-harvest associated fungi. Fungicide application can reduce crop loss but leads to resistance in microbes. The acquisition of fungicide resistance among post-harvest disease fungi in particular is less well studied and requires improved monitoring and development of genomic techniques for rapid diagnostics to trace the common source and spread of resistance mechanisms. The project will help to understand if resistance is acquired locally in farms or is a result of spores dispersed across regions which can inform mitigation and prevention strategies.

Performing Institution : UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, RIVERSIDE
Investigator : Stajich, J.

Présentation : USDA (NIFA)

Page publiée le 25 novembre 2021