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Wageningen University (2021)

Mining and impoverishm ent tendencies of Mongolian nomads : the role of land conflicts in Mongolia

Thießen, Felix

Titre : Mining and impoverishm ent tendencies of Mongolian nomads : the role of land conflicts in Mongolia

Auteur : Thießen, Felix

Université de soutenance : Wageningen University

Grade : Master of Science (MS) Sociology of Development & Change (SDC) 2021

Résumé
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union and Mongolia’s rejection of Socialism in 1992, Mongolia experienced three decades of social and economic transformation. The period of transition meant erosion and power shifts of state authorities. Since the mid-2000s, the country has gone through a strong and lasting economic upswing due to the exploitation and export trade with the country’s vast and abundant mineral resources. However, mining does challenge traditional and customary practices and livelihoods of the Mongolian nomads. The impact of mining seems to lead to a change of powers in the steppe, the open grasslands covering 90% of Mongolia’s surface. Although the country experienced a strong and lasting economic upswing, the Mongolian nomads increas ingly tend to give up their livelihoods as pastoralists and move to the city. Especially in the vicinity of mines there are problems between nomads and mining. A new land and mining law has changed traditional rights to use the pasture. Nomads lost some of their abilities to benefit they used to have. It is of interest to find causes that can explain the impoverishment tendencies experienced by Mongolian nomads near mines. Therefore, the following guiding question evolves : "What is the relationship between property and access transformations and the impoverishment process of nomads ?". Therefore, this research tries to determine if and which specific mechanisms between access and property rights can explain nomads’ impoverishment processes affected by mining. Finally, some policy recommendations could be developed that are hoped to help to counter the impoverishment processes. Qualitative interviews, together with document analysis and literature reviews, form the main methods of this research. The data has been gathered during four months of field research in Mongolia. Using an access framework for analysis, this paper provides a sys tematic understanding of nomads’ struggles to access in the case of Mongolia. Thus, this thesis forms a suitable example that can be transferred to similar local contexts worldwide

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Page publiée le 14 décembre 2021