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Accueil du site → Master → Pays Bas → 2021 → Planning for cooler cities : a framework to prioritize zones for Urban Heat Island (UHI) mitigation. A case study of Kampala, Uganda.

University of Twente (2021)

Planning for cooler cities : a framework to prioritize zones for Urban Heat Island (UHI) mitigation. A case study of Kampala, Uganda.

Ferrario, Chiara Luisa

Titre : Planning for cooler cities : a framework to prioritize zones for Urban Heat Island (UHI) mitigation. A case study of Kampala, Uganda.

Auteur : Ferrario, Chiara Luisa

Etablissement de soutenance : University of Twente

Grade : Master of Science in Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation 2021

Résumé partiel
The problem of increasing temperature in urban areas compared to their rural surroundings, known as the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect, also concerns fast-growing cities in the sub-Saharan region. These cities are commonly lacking mitigation and adaptation tools in the urban planning and design processes : this is also the case of Kampala, Uganda. Previous studies have shown a limited usage of zoning tools by municipalities to explicitly address climatic and environmental issues, in addition to the ones based upon socio-economic functionalities. One available zone-based analysis method which captures the variation of urban temperature is the Local Climate Zone (LCZ) classification method. Nevertheless, the LCZ framework alone is insufficient to help urban planners to identify priority zones for UHI mitigation. Therefore, the goal of this study is to demonstrate how a methodology framework can provide new means for urban planners to prioritize UHI mitigation targets, with the support of the LCZ scheme. The proposed methodology framework spans across multiple scales that starts from the city and gradually zooms into the neighborhood scale, and its backbone is the analysis of heat spatial risk. In parallel, LCZ classification is used as a support to identify contributing factors to the increase of temperature and, consequently, to select heat mitigation measures to be applied in the identified priority zones. We question to what extent the UHI effect concerns the city of Kampala by defining meaningful thresholds. Moreover, by analyzing the differences between mean Land Surface Temperatures (LST) in the different LCZs, showing that the warmest areas are the low-rise compact zones (LCZ 7, 2 and 3) which are mainly concentrated in the city center or in proximity thereof. Furthermore, we compare the mean LST of slums to medium-high income residential areas as a justification to select informal settlement dwellers as the vulnerable target group to analyze spatial heat risk in Kampala. A

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Page publiée le 17 décembre 2021