Informations et ressources scientifiques
sur le développement des zones arides et semi-arides

Accueil du site → Doctorat → États-Unis → 1987 → Development and famine-risk in Kenya Maasai land

University of California, Berkeley (1987)

Development and famine-risk in Kenya Maasai land

Halderman, John Michael

Titre : Development and famine-risk in Kenya Maasai land.

Auteur : Halderman, John Michael

Université de soutenance : University of California, Berkeley, USA

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 1987

The thesis advanced here is that to determine the relationship of development to famine-risk it is useful to examine the conditions of real groups of people in concrete settings, focusing on (i) the context, including the development that has already taken place, and (ii) the perspectives of the diverse sets of actors involved in any development effort promoted as a means of reducing future famine. What is termed here the ’contextual/perspective’ analytic approach was therefore developed and used in this study to examine Kenya Maasai land. In part i a number of issues related to famine and development in Africa are woven together, the analytic approach explained and the perspectives of the actors introduced in a short story. Elements of the history of Kenya and Maasai land are examined in parts ii and iii in an effort to (i) discern key processes of development and their relationship to famine-risk, and how (ii) the evolving context shaped the perspectives of the actors involved in the group ranch program. This development effort was initiated in Kenya Maasai land in the mid- 1960s, in the aftermath of severe drought, heavy loss of livestock and a large scale famine-relief program. The study analyzes the manner in which Maasai were affected by and reacted to political, economic and social changes resulting from colonialism, focusing on the period from about 1870-1970. The imposition and extension of a modern state system of government is examined, as well as the introduction by White settlers of commercial agriculture and Western forms of land tenure. There is also examination of the origins and evolution of the rural development policy framework in Kenya in general and Maasai land in particular, and the ’conservative’ reaction of Maasai to Western education and other aspects of colonialism is contrasted with the ’progressive’ reaction of Kikuyu. An essential feature of this analytic approach is that it is concerned with both officials and rural peoples. The analysis in part iv reveals that the methods proposed under the group ranching program for the alleged purpose of protecting the environment and thereby preventing future famine clashed with the existing system of land use and famine prevention followed by most Maasai in the project area. It further reveals how certain processes of development had reduced the risk of famine for some but had increased it for many others

Mots Clés : Maasai (African people) / Kikuyu (African people) / Maasailand, Kenya / Famine / Land use / Rural development


Page publiée le 23 septembre 2010, mise à jour le 27 décembre 2016