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Universidade de Sao Paulo (2009)

Avaliação fisiológica e agronômica de soja geneticamente modificada para maior tolerância à seca

Salinet, Luana Held

Titre : Avaliação fisiológica e agronômica de soja geneticamente modificada para maior tolerância à seca

Auteur : Salinet, Luana Held

Université de soutenance : Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ) Universidade de Sao Paulo

Grade : Dissertação de Mestrado 2009

Résumé
Soybean is one of the major socio-economic important crops in the world due to the agro-industrial complex involved. The occurrence of drought during the period of development of soybean fields is very frequent, resulting in drastic yield decrease. As the drought being one limiting factor in the yield without human direct control, and the necessity of supplying the growing world food demand, keeping the stability of the yield seems to be the key for this problem. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiologic and agronomic response of two soybean genotypes ; one genetically modified containing the construction rd29A:DREB1A, aiming drought tolerance, and its conventional isoline, comparing them in different conditions of soil water availability. Soybean plants were transformed with the cassette rd29A:DREB1A, both elements of Arabidopsis thaliana, introduced by biobalistic method. The overexpression effect of AtDREB on physiologic and agronomic parameters was evaluated in greenhouse conditions during three cultivations. The experiment design used was the RBD (Randomized Blocks Design) in factorial scheme (2x2), with four blocks and three samples for block, and the results were submitted to the Analyze of Variance (ANOVA) and to the Tukey test (p 0,05) of multiples means comparisons. Transformed BR16 cultivar seeds were used with the construction rd29A:DREB1A, named P58, and seeds of no-transformed BR16 cultivars. The plants were submitted to two conditions of water availability : 15% of soil gravimetric humidity (GH) during all the experiment time (control) and 2,5% of GH (stress treatment) starting from R1/R2 (flowering stage). Photosynthetic and transpiration rates, stomatal conductance and temperature difference between the air and the leaf were measured with a portable open gas exchange system (LI-6400 ; Li- Cor ®), besides the photosynthetic efficiency and agronomic parameters, between nine and eleven-thirty in the morning. For stomatal conductance, temperature difference, photosynthetic and transpiration rates, the higher values were verified in the plants under 15% of GH and, within this humidity, these higher values were usually verified in plants P58 in relation to the BR16 plants. In the treatment under stress (2,5% of GH), the transgenic plants maintained higher values in almost all measurements and, when it did not occur, they showed values that did not differ statistically of the BR16 plants. The photosynthetic efficiency was higher in the P58 plants only in the final measures ; and for the same GH, and statistically equal in the others measures. For the agronomic evaluations, the BR16 plants showed the highest heights in both humidities, even though they had the same number of nodes as the P58. For the aerial part weight, the number of seeds and the number of legumes with seed and seed weight, the highest values were of the plants under 15% of GH and, within these, of the BR16 plants in general. The results indicate that the expression of the construction with the gene DREB1A leads to a higher drought tolerance of the transgenic plants, based on physiologic response, although they still need tests on the field.

Mots clés : Drought, Photosynthesis, Soil water – availability, Soybean Physiology, Transgenic plants.

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Page publiée le 25 septembre 2010, mise à jour le 31 mars 2019