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Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (2009)

Potencial fitoremediador da Atriplex nummularia em solos salinizados e sodificados pelo reúso de efluentes de esgotos tratados na agricultura

Tavera Quiroz, Humberto Carlos

Titre : Potencial fitoremediador da Atriplex nummularia em solos salinizados e sodificados pelo reúso de efluentes de esgotos tratados na agricultura

Auteur : Tavera Quiroz, Humberto Carlos

Université de soutenance : Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul.

Grade : Mestre em Recursos Hidricos e Saneamento Ambientale 2009

Résumé
Wastewater reuse in crops irrigation represents a good alternative in the water resources management because it supplies nutrients and water in sufficient amount to guarantee the growing of cultures, but also can affects negatively the soil due to the constant irrigation along time. The worst effect is related to the increase of the soil salinity and sodium content. An option to mitigate this effect is to use varieties of vegetable species that can extract or accumulate salt. This study researched the changes in the chemical properties of a Plano soil (distributed in 36 pots, 18 protected of rains and winds and 18 exposed them), irrigated over two months (June – July) with secondary treated wastewater from an anaerobic reactor/maturation pond. Besides that, it was studied the performance of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia in removing salts and cations accumulated in the soil (August 2008 – February 2009), by measuring from the soil extract samples : the behavior of electrical conductivity, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and pH ; and from the pots leachate : pH, electrical conductivity and exchangeable sodium. During the phytoremediation process, besides the wastewater effluent used in the first stage (treatment 3), there were also applied wastewater effluent from an UASB reactor (treatment 2) and potable water (treatment 1). Also, it was studied the behavior of soil´s physicals characteristic measuring water retention curves at the beginning and end of the experiment. Irrigation with the secondary treated wastewater from an anaerobic reactor/maturation pond increased significantly soil’s sodium concentration, and simultaneously, it decreased calcium and magnesium concentrations in the soil ; augmenting the Exchangeable Sodium Percentages (ESP), thus indicating the sodification of soil superficial layer (0 – 20 cm). The values of pH and electrical conductivity (soil salinity indicators when reaching values below 8,5 and over 4 dS m-1, respectively) increased, but did not reached critical values. The pots not exposed to environmental conditions presented greater salts and cations concentrations accumulated on top soil. Phytoremediation stage efficiencies were higher than 85% (in the absence of rain) and between 30 and 45% (in the presence of rain) for applied treatments 2 and 3, respectively ; and more than 80% for the applied treatment 1. These results showed that the plant performance is better in the absence of rain and strong winds. The changes on the physical characteristics were statistically non-significant (α = 0.01), probably because of the short duration of the experiment. The results in general, showed the potential of the Atriplex nummularia in phytoremediation processes of wastewater-irrigated soils.

Mots clés : Atiplex nummularia, Phytoremediation, Salinization, Sodification, Wastewater reuse

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Page publiée le 25 septembre 2010, mise à jour le 31 mars 2019