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Universität Wien (2020)

Bodenerosion in mediterranen Weinbergen und Olivenhainen als aktuelles und zukünftiges Problem

Prinz Dominik

Titre : Bodenerosion in mediterranen Weinbergen und Olivenhainen als aktuelles und zukünftiges Problem

Auteur : Prinz Dominik

Université de soutenance : Universität Wien

Grade : Masterarbeit 2020

Résumé
Hydrological extreme weather events and inadequate agricultural practices have led to advancing physical soil erosion in the Mediterranean, which is particularly problematic in vineyards and olive groves. For the analysis of soil erosion in vineyards and olive groves, databases were created which summarize the erosion rates of different vegetation covers respectively crops from a total of 78 studies. The comparison of the annual erosion rates depicted vineyards, with 15.12 t ha-1 year-1 to exhibit the highest average loss of sediments, followed by olives (8,88 t ha-1 year-1) and fruit trees (8.19 t ha-1 year-1). When looking at hourly measurements, the mean erosion rates in fruit trees (3.19 t ha-1 h-1) were higher than in vineyards (1.63 t ha-1 h-1) and bare soil (0.33 t ha-1 h-1). For olive groves, there were insufficient values available to obtain meaningful results. The comparison of the soil loss rates from vineyards in semi-arid and humid regions of Europe uncovered no relevant differences. The average rates were almost identical for semi-arid (15.98 t ha-1 year-1) and humid (16.23 t ha-1 year-1) conditions. Appropriate management strategies can drastically decrease erosion rates in vineyards and olive groves. Surfaces without cover crops showed average rates of 18.84 t ha-1 year-1 or 2.47 t ha-1 h-1, while surfaces with cover crops showed rates of 5.59 t ha-1 year-1 or 0.32 t ha-1 h-1 and with mulch 7.23 t ha-1 year-1 or 0.48 t ha-1 h-1. Furthermore, the change in frequency of heavy precipitation events was analyzed in three locations each in both south-east Spain and northern Italy. In south-eastern Spain, no uniform tendencies were observed, while the north of Italy showed slightly positive trends. The results of this work suggest a similar problem of soil erosion in vineyards, olive groves, fruit tree orchards and on bare soil. Against the background of climate change, soil-protecting management techniques should urgently be established in vineyards and olive groves in order to sustainably reduce soil erosion.

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