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Universidad de Chile (2015)

Calibración del modelo Hydrus en suelos salinos bajo olivos regados por goteo

Faúndez Urbina, Carlos Alberto ;

Titre : Calibración del modelo Hydrus en suelos salinos bajo olivos regados por goteo

Auteur : Faúndez Urbina, Carlos Alberto ;

Université de soutenance : Universidad de Chile

Grade : Magíster en Manejo de Suelos y Aguas 2015

Résumé
Currently, the zone between Copiapó and Santiago of Chile is under a severe drought, which generates difficulties in the fruit production. Copiapó city in the Atacama Region, presents a desert climate with only 22 mm of average annual rainfall. The soils can be classified as moderately saline to extremely saline, with an electrical conductivity (EC) measured in saturation extract (ECe) from 2.5 to 19.1 dS m-1 . The water and salt management in olive tree orchards in the Copiapó Valley is being done without the appropriate technology and supervision, which may causes a water overestimation by the farmers, causing hypoxia, or conversely a constant salinization of the soil profile. There are many forms to deal with this problem ; most of them is focused on the resolution of a mass and energy balance in the continuum soil-plant-atmosphere. One of these methods is the numerical simulation with the software HYDRUS, which solved the Richard’s equation for water flux and the AdvectoDispersive equation for heat and solute transport in the soil. Accordingly, it was proposed to calibrate a water and solute balance with the HYDRUS model in a saline soil condition with olives trees under drip irrigation and to validate it with FDR disposed in the plant row under the drip irrigation system. The methodology considered the installation of five FDR sensors in a layered soil (loam to silty clay loam). It was measured the volumetric water content, (WC) and the solution electrical conductivity (ECp), comparing them with the simulated values from HYDRUS parametrized with soil water retention curve, saturated hydraulic conductivity and inverse solutions of each layer of the soil profile. It was evaluated the relative root mean square error (RRMSE) and Nash, between other statistics, as reliability criteria. The obtained results shown a RRMSE of 13.8% and 29% and a Nash of 0.64 and 0.72 for WC and ECp respectively. These results show that HYDRUS is an alternative tool for arid zones, where it can simulate the soil water content and pore electrical conductivity with high confiability

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