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Università degli Studi della Tuscia (2014)

Organic mulching impacts on vegetable crop production

Brunetti, Paola

Titre : Organic mulching impacts on vegetable crop production

Impatto della pacciamatura organica sulle produzioni vegetali

Auteur : Brunetti, Paola

Université de soutenance : Università degli Studi della Tuscia

Grade : Tesi di dottorato di ricerca 2014

Résumé partiel
A sustainable approach seems to be the better way to resolve the sustainability issue of human activities. Among all the anthropogenic activities that have had negative impact on the environment, the agriculture results to be the main sector in changing land use, depleting earth’s resources or polluting the environment. The sustainable agriculture seems to be the solution to resolve some issues, such us high use of mineral nitrogen and/or decreasing of organic matter by the deepest soil tillage, etc. At the experimental farm of University of Tuscia, from 2011 to 2013, several studies were carried out to compare yield producti vity of different sustainable agronomic techniques with conventional management (C) on C stock dynamics and CO2 fluxes, soil microbial activity and chemical properties, and weeds control. The obtained results showed different interesting aspects. The hairy vetch (HV) showed the highest positive influences on the tomato yield productivity compared to other cover crop species and to the conventional treatment adopted in the trials. As far as the soil CO2 fluxes resulted that were influenced by climatic conditions and by soil volume water content and soil temperature. The polynomial regression model evidenced the optimum of soil temperature and water content different between treatments in comparison [21.5 °C as average in barley straw (BS), C and HV, and 18.3 °C in white mustard (WM) ; soil water content of 28% as average in BS, C and HV, 55% in WM, and 87% in lacy phacelia (LP)]. About to the net balance of C soil, the hairy vetch seems to be most advantageous : despite the soil output by means the soil respiration was higher compared to other treatments ; the total soil C input (given by cover crops and tomato biomass, fruits excluded), was higher too. It is possible resume that the use of hairy vetch mulch on no-tilled soil, slight reduction of irrigation water (-25%) and a rationalized use of N fertilizer could cause a positive effect on C storage in the soil, and consequently better benefits on the agroecosystem. Concerning to the microbial activity and functional diversity, results showed that they were strongly affected by the climatic conditions in all mulching treatments. In particular, precipitations controlled soil carbon availability, which promoted microbial functional diversity. In the two years of the experiment, the amount of precipitation from May to August was 110 mm in 2012 and 172 mm in 2013. The average values of aridity index were 18 and 49 in 2012 and 2013, respectively. LP mulching was sensitive to low precipitation in terms of aboveground decomposition rate and tomato

Mots Clés  : Soil CO2 emission ;Organic mulching ;Microbial biomass ;Green manure ;Weed control ;Emissioni di CO2 dal suolo ;Pacciamatura organica ;Biomassa microbica ;Controllo delle infestanti ;AGR/02

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