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Yarmouk University (2018)

Screening of Newly Introduced Wheat (Triticum Durum L.) Cultivars to Drought and Salt Stress

Tashtoush, Yazan Mohammad

Titre : Screening of Newly Introduced Wheat (Triticum Durum L.) Cultivars to Drought and Salt Stress

Auteur : Tashtoush, Yazan Mohammad

Université de soutenance : Yarmouk University

Grade : Master of Biological Sciences (MS) 2018

Résumé
Wheat is a major cereal crop in the world due to its high nutritional value. Wheat growth and productivity are influenced by biotic and abiotic stresses. Drought and salinity can reduce wheat productivity by more than 80%. In this project, we studied the effect of drought and salinity on newly introduced wheat cultivars (Mamorai, Um-Rabee and Acsad-1315) and compared their stress tolerance to local cultivars (Horani, Acsad-65 and Sham-1). Different morphological (Germination percentages, root length, root number, shoot length, plant height, number of leaves, number of seeds/spikes, and weight of seeds) and biochemical (Proline, chlorophyll and MDA content) parameters were investigated. Salinity and drought stresses reduced significantly most of the studied growth parameters (Germination percentages, root length, root number and shoot length) for Triticim durum local cultivars. In contrast, abiotic stresses significantly increased Proline, chlorophyll and MDA content. Under salinity stress in growth champer experiments, (Um-Rabee) showed the highest germination percentages (86.5%) (94% relative to its control), (Mamorai) showed the longest shoot (2cm) (46% relative to its control), (Acsad-65) showed longest root (2.5cm) (68% relative to its control), (Acsad-1315) showed highest root number (4.3cm) (90% relative to its control), (Mamorai) showed high proline content (310 µmol/g FW) (1570% relative to its control), (Horani) showed high LPO level (0.701 mM/g FW) (708% relative to its control) and (Acsad-1315) showed high chlorophyll content (31.9 µg/mg FW) (31% relative to its control). In green house experiments, (Mamorai) showed the longest shoot (42.7cm) (61% relative to its control), (Sham-1) showed the highest number of leaves (4) (93% relative to its control), (Acsad-1315) showed the highest seeds number\spike (3) (0.3 % relative to its control), (Um-Rabee) highest seeds weight (0.02g) (2.7% relative to its control). Under drought stress in growth champer experiments, Horani cultivar showed highest germination percentages (85%) (88% relative to its control), new wheat cultivars (Mamorai) showed the longest shoot (3.8cm) (69% relative to its control), (Acsad-65) showed longest root (4cm) (74% relative to its control), (Mamorai) higher root number (3.8) (90% relative to its control), (Mamorai) showed high proline content (194.4µmol/g FW) (935% relative to its control), (Horani) showed high LPO level (0.733 mM/g FW) (481% relative to its control) and (Sham-1) showed high chlorophyll content (0.436 µg/mg FW) (53% relative to its control). In green house experiments, (Sham-1) showed the longest shoot (50.33cm) (82% relative to its control), (Acsad-65) and new wheat cultivars (Sham-1) showed the highest number of leaves (3.2) (93% relative to its control), (Um-Rabee) highest seeds number\spike (9.2) (58% relative to its control), (Mamorai) cultivar highest seeds weight (0.304g) (54% relative to its control). In conclusion, we found thet new cultivars (Mamorai, Um-Rabee and Acsad-1315) were more tolerant to salinity and drought stresses.

Mots Clés : Triticum durum, Salinity, Drought, Jordanian cultivars.

Annonce

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Page publiée le 22 avril 2022