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Stellenbosch University (2020)

STOCHASTIC EVALUATION OF PER CAPITA DOMESTIC WATER REQUIREMENTS IN VIEW OF VARIOUS LIFESTYLES

Crouch, Melissa Lauren

Titre : STOCHASTIC EVALUATION OF PER CAPITA DOMESTIC WATER REQUIREMENTS IN VIEW OF VARIOUS LIFESTYLES

Auteur : Crouch, Melissa Lauren

Université de soutenance : Stellenbosch University

Grade : Master of Engineering 2020

Résumé
Water authorities and policymakers are challenged with ensuring water supply for the future in the face of population growth, urbanisation and climate change. The possibility exists that water is being used at a rate that is much greater than is necessary for efficient daily use. It is important to determine daily water use requirements for different lifestyle habits. Other enduse studies have been conducted and household models have been created to evaluate household water use. However, per capita water requirements, for a range of lifestyles, have not been statistically modelled at an activity-based level. For this reason, a stochastic model entitled the litre per capita per day (LCD) model was set up to determine the domestic per capita water requirements for a single person, fully serviced, urban household at different lifestyle levels. The model was linked to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to define different water use categories. The lifestyle levels considered were the “absolute basic consumption” lifestyle level where only basic health and hygiene needs were met ; the “realistic everyday acceptable limited consumption” lifestyle level which limits water use to indoor use, yet allows for the normal functioning of a household ; the “esteemed needs” lifestyle level which allowed for indoor and limited outdoor water use and finally the “ultimate consumption” lifestyle level which allowed for unrestricted indoor and outdoor use. Probabilistic distributions were used to describe each model input. A Monte Carlo simulation was run using @Risk software to determine the expected distribution of water use for each lifestyle level. The model results showed that the average absolute basic water requirement to live a hygienic lifestyle is 92 L/c/d ; the average realistic everyday acceptable limited consumption is 175 L/c/d, the average esteemed needs water use is 227 L/c/d and the average ultimate consumption is 314 L/c/d, in a fully serviced urban household. The model values were found to be comparable to consumption values found in literature. The results of this study can be used as guidelines for daily target values by water authorities and policymakers.

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