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Accueil du site → Master → Afrique du Sud → 2021 → The impacts of irrigation by industrial effluent on the groundwater resource in Zwelitsha-King Williamstown, Eastern Cape

North-West University (2021)

The impacts of irrigation by industrial effluent on the groundwater resource in Zwelitsha-King Williamstown, Eastern Cape

Ravele, Khathutshelo

Titre : The impacts of irrigation by industrial effluent on the groundwater resource in Zwelitsha-King Williamstown, Eastern Cape

Auteur : Ravele, Khathutshelo

Université de soutenance : North-West University

Grade : Master of Environmental Management with Ecological Water Requirements 2021

Résumé
The greatest water quality problem in the Buffalo River catchment area is the discharge of effluent from waste water treatment works and industries around Zwelitsha-King Williamstown. The Da Gama Textile factory has caused significant pollution on the Buffalo River, resulting in the widespread death of fish. This disaster occurred when holding dams over-flowed during periods of intense rain. Groundwater contaminated by industrial effluents, have impact on agriculture irrigation, drinking utilities, soil and agricultural systems. So, it is essential to assess the status of industrial effluent and distribution and dispersion of chemical parameters in the environment of the vicinity of industrial areas before discharging to prevent and control groundwater pollution. The main aim for this study was to determine the impacts of irrigation with industrial waste water (Da Gama Textile) on the groundwater quality in Zwelitsha-King Williamstown. This central aim was supported by investigating a) the historical and current water quality status of the surface water of the Buffalo River ; b) the current industrial waste water quality from the textile industry ; and c) the influence of the industrial effluent on the surface and groundwater. Water quality data (2002 to present) were obtained from surface and groundwater monitoring stations within the Buffalo River catchment to assess the long-term water quality patterns. Multivariate statistical methods such as Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used. The key findings were that the groundwater quality has deteriorated due to the salinity and suspended solids inputs from the industrial area through effluent irrigation. The historical and current water quality status of the surface water of the Buffalo River showed an overall decrease. The only exception was for PO42- that displayed an increasing trend in the surface water sites. The data further showed that the effluent has high TSS, EC, PO42- and COD concentrations. The effluent irrigation activities have caused a notable increase in the EC and TSS of the groundwater as observed in the groundwater sites results. However, the surface water of the Buffalo River downstream of the textile industry does not have elevated TSS and EC compared to upstream. There is however an overall increase in PO42-, which may be indicative of the groundwater transporting the effluent PO42-into the river through groundwater-surface water interaction. The contamination further moves to the Buffalo River as the PO42- showed an increasing trend. The salinity of the water was also found to be increased and causing water quality problems from the discharge of textile effluents. On-going monitoring of the ground and surface waters in the study area should be continued at higher frequency and with more than the current four common water quality variables included in the monitoring. Future studies should also focus on the impact of heavy metals on the environmental aspects associated with the irrigation with industrial effluent.

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Page publiée le 8 mai 2022