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North-West University (2021)

Developing a pro-poor tourism framework for Zimbabwe

Chipfuva, Tsitsi

Titre : Developing a pro-poor tourism framework for Zimbabwe

Auteur : Chipfuva, Tsitsi

Université de soutenance : North-West University

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy in Tourism Management 2021

The aim of this study was to develop a pro-poor tourism framework for Zimbabwe, using a case study of Chitomborwizi East small-scale commercial farms, an area in Makonde District in Mashonaland West Province in Zimbabwe. The main income-generating activity in the Ward at the time of the study was small-scale agriculture but poverty was worsening because of low annual rainfall, frequent droughts, high input costs, limited access to bank loans and reduction of government subsidies for farmers, as well as the unfavourable global macro-economic situation. To stimulate economic activities in multiple sectors, tourism was targeted by the researcher as an option that could improve livelihoods in the area, given its potential for agri-tourism, water-based and cultural and heritage tourism. The objectives of the study were to analyse tourism development theories and pro-poor tourism theories, conduct a resource analysis for pro-poor tourism in Chitomborwizi East Ward, determine if domestic tourism demand existed for rural tourism in the area and how key multisectoral stakeholders perceived the development of tourism. Questionnaires were distributed to urban residents of Gunhill in Chinhoyi Town and semi-structured interviews were conducted to determine the perceptions of the community, its leadership, government departments and parastatals on tourism development in the area. The responses from the interviews and questionnaires were thematically and statistically analysed, presented and discussed. The study showed that there was indeed potential for diversifying rural livelihoods by harnessing tourism opportunities to increase income levels. Development should be endogenous to the rural community, but this is only possible if community social capital is developed. Successful farming formed the basis for agricultural tourism which could be complemented by other attractions. However, the government would need to upgrade infra- and super-structure to adequately support tourism development. Key findings also indicated the need to build accommodation and provide quality tourism amenities to service the tourist trade. The results were utilised in the development of the pro-poor tourism framework for Zimbabwe which is the main contribution of the study. This framework follows a different approach in developing tourism since it is foreseen that the current economic circumstances will not change significantly in the near future. This framework is not dependent on the government which seems as the right approach at this point in time . It was concluded that domestic tourists could be attracted to the area and thus play a vital role in the economic development of rural Chitomborwizi East and poverty alleviation


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