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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Afrique du Sud → 2021 → Environmental history and Memory : an evaluation of drought and dry periods in south-central and south -eastern Zimbabwe, 1940- present , and the archaeological implications

University of Pretoria (2021)

Environmental history and Memory : an evaluation of drought and dry periods in south-central and south -eastern Zimbabwe, 1940- present , and the archaeological implications

Chimwanda, Acquiline

Titre : Environmental history and Memory : an evaluation of drought and dry periods in south-central and south -eastern Zimbabwe, 1940- present , and the archaeological implications

Auteur : Chimwanda, Acquiline

Université de soutenance : University of Pretoria

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2021

Résumé
The thesis re-examined current interpretations of the environmental role in the social formation and decline of complex societies in southern Africa in the last 2000 years. The study specifically focused on the period from the end of the first millennium AD to the second millennium AD in southern Africa. An understanding of complex societies, in terms of livelihood options, sustainability and human responses/decisions, was placed within the initial phase of the Little Ice Age during the transformation of societies such as Mapungubwe and Great Zimbabwe states occurred. The evaluation of the drought and dry periods for contemporary societies was assumed to give indicators of what could have happened between the rise and decline of southern Africa‟s complex societies. The findings from south-eastern and central Zimbabwean communities suggest new perspectives through livelihood lenses that incorporate human response and decisions in the face of natural catastrophes to interpret cultural change in an ever-changing environment. The findings of this study show that even during severe droughts or other stress-induced environmental events, people employed multiple strategies to reduce the risk and impact of climatic change. The interesting aspect of climate change and social organization rests not only on the challenges it poses, but also the opportunities created. Responding to droughts through diversified coping strategies for both past and contemporary societies is taken as evidence that people are not adamant victims of climate change. Key Words : complex societies, Little Ice Age, drought and dry spells, livelihood, transformation

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Page publiée le 27 avril 2022