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Seoul National University (2019)

Evaluation of personal exposure to particulate matter during winter in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia


Titre : Evaluation of personal exposure to particulate matter during winter in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

몽골 울란바타르에서 겨울철 입자상 물질의 개인노출 평가

Auteur : 신혜린

Université de soutenance : Seoul National University

Grade : Master 2019

Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia has a serious air pollution during winter. Residents of ger, Mongolian traditional housing structure, used coal as indoor heating and cooking fuel. PM2.5 is one of the main air pollutants in coal combustion. It was critical to characterize personal exposure to PM2.5 to prevent adverse health effects by indoor coal burning. This study was conducted to compare personal exposure to PM2.5 of ger and apartment residents by residential characteristics and to evaluate the influence of time-activity patterns on personal exposure to PM2.5. Two-day personal exposures of 16 couples in ger and 16 couples in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia were measured from January to February, 2019. All 32 couples were consisted of a full-time working husband and a homemaking housewife. Aslung monitor (Rododo Science, Taiwan) was used for measuring PM2.5. Co-location tests were performed to calibrate the data measured by Aslung with gravimetric methods. To record the time-activity patterns, participants were asked to write the logbook. Microenvironment was divided into home, workplace, outdoor, transportation, and other indoors. Face-to-face surveys were conducted to investigate housing characteristics. The geometric mean of personal exposure to PM2.5 of ger residents was 59.1(1.7) μg/m3 which was significantly higher than that of apartment residents of 26.8(2.0) μg/m3 (p<0.001). Personal exposure increased in the morning when people started activity, decreased in the afternoon, and increased again in the evening regardless of housing type. Similar to indoor air pollution, the ambient PM2.5 concentration was maximum at 10:00 and minimum at 17:00. PM2.5 concentrations at all microenvironment were higher in ger residents. A linear regression analysis identified housing type and ambient PM2.5 concentration as significant factors affecting hourly personal exposure (p<0.001). Exposure at home had the highest contribution to 24-hour personal exposure to PM2.5. The PM2.5/PM10 ratio was ranged from 0.73 – 0.96 in all microenvironment. This study found that ger residents were exposed to higher PM2.5 concentration than apartment residents by indoor coal burning. Reducing measures considering ambient PM2.5 concentration are required to prevent residents of Ulaanbaatar from adverse health effects of PM2.5 emitted by coal combustion.

Mots clés : 개인노출 ; 입자상 물질 ; 시간활동패턴 ; 노출평가 ; 미세환경 ; PM2.5


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