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Nelson Mandela University (2021)

Studies on seed germination and response to fertilization of Amaranthus accessions collected in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Ramangoele, Mpaballeng Alinah

Titre : Studies on seed germination and response to fertilization of Amaranthus accessions collected in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Auteur : Ramangoele, Mpaballeng Alinah

Université de soutenance : Nelson Mandela University

Grade : Master of Science (2021)

Studies were conducted at Döhne Agricultural Development Institute (D.A.D.I.), geographically located between latitude 32°31’34.077"S and longitude 27°27’37.473"E in Stutterheim, Eastern Cape Province from summer 2018 until autumn 2019.The objectives were to determine seed germination and seedling vigour of four local Amaranthus accessions and to evaluate the effect of organic and inorganic fertilization on the growth, yield and nutrient composition. In the germination studies, herein referred to as Experiment 1,laboratory assessments were laid out in a Complete Randomized Design (CRD) replicated four times to test seed germination, seedling emergence and seedling vigour of four Amaranthus accessions namely : A. Hypochondriacus, A. Retroflexus 1, A. Hybridus and A. Retroflexus 2. Data collection included germination percentage, radicle length, co-efficient of velocity of germination and seedling vigour. A.Retroflexus2 gave the highest germination percentage in summer (85%) and autumn (87.75%).Seed weight resulted in the highest germination percentage and was observed to have shown a high positive correlation of R2=0.91 in summer andR2=0.92 in autumn respectively. The highest seedling vigour (p<0.001) in summer was attained from A. Hypochondriacus and A. Retroflexus2.In the greenhouse in summer, the highest emergence percentage was observed from A. Hypochondriacus(93.00%), whilst in autumn it was A.Retroflexus2 (88.38%).A. Retroflexus1 was the least performer in both seasons. In summer, A. Hypochondriacus and A. Retroflexus2 resulted in very high seedling vigour. In autumn A. Hypochondriacus, A. Retroflexus2 and A. Hybridus resulted in high seedling vigour and A. Retroflexus1 in moderate seedling vigour. The relationship observed between seed weight and seedling vigour showed a negative (inverse)correlation in summer R2=0.58 and autumn R2=0.62.In Experiment 2, seedlings of A. Hypochondriacus and A. Retroflexus 2were transplanted in 5litrebasal perforated plastic pots which were filled with soil. The experimental layout was a CRD replicated four times. The treatments were : control (no amendment), goat manure, cattle manure and NPK fertilizer. Growth performance data were collected for plant height, the number of leaves and stem girth. In summer, when goat manure was applied both accessions resulted in the tallest plants (78.80cm) yet A. Retroflexus 2 and vA. Hypochondriacus gave the greatest stem girthand highest number of leaves respectively. In autumn, the tallest plants and highest number of leaves were observed from A. Retroflexus 2fertilized with NPK and the greatest stem girth was observed from A. Hypochondriacus fertilized with goat manure. The interaction of fertilization and accessions resulted in A. Retroflexus 2 fertilized with goat manure generating the greatest fresh shoot biomass (137.27g plant-1) and the least from the control. Both accessions fertilized with goat manure attained the greatest dry leaf biomass. Insummer, A.Retroflexus2 outperformed A. Hypochondriacus in calcium content despite the treatments. Unfertilized A. Retroflexus2 produced leaves with high potassium. Both unfertilized accessions showed the highest magnesium content. All A. Retroflexus2 treatments outperformed A. Hypochondriacus treatments on iron content except the control. The summer season was the best in terms of growth and yield of the tested accessions

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Page publiée le 11 mai 2022