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Central University of Technology, Free State (2019)

Optimal Energy Management In A Smart Home, Based On Photovoltaic Systems Energy Feed-In Tariff : Case Of South Africa

Marais, Stephan

Titre : Optimal Energy Management In A Smart Home, Based On Photovoltaic Systems Energy Feed-In Tariff : Case Of South Africa

Auteur : Marais, Stephan

Université de soutenance : Central University of Technology, Free State

Grade : Master of Engineering in Electrical Engineering 2019

Résumé partiel
In recent years, concern over environmental problems, such as the increase of atmospheric temperatures and destruction of the ozone layer, have amplified on a global scale. In the future, increased efficiency of energy systems and reduced end-use energy demand will be significant in attaining the 6% curtailment of greenhouse gases, targeted by the Kyoto Protocol. Although the energy research and development has been known over an extended period in large buildings, it has recently been applied at household level. In South Africa, there are approximately 9 million homes that have access to electricity. Approximately 27% of the generated energy in South Africa was consumed by the residential sector in 2015. This making the residential sector the second largest energy consumer in the economy. In South Africa, electricity is solely supplied by Eskom, a state-owned enterprise. For the last decade, Eskom have experienced challenges in meeting the national demand. The issue of the supply being less than the demand, has led to the requirement of additional fossil fuel plants, which resulted in financial challenges. These financial challenges have resulted in harsh tariff increases for consumers. With the aim to reduce the load-demand of the grid during peak periods, the electricity supply commission (ESKOM), implemented the time-of-use (TOU) tariff structure, billing consumers at a higher tariff rate during certain periods of the day. These tariff increases are compelling consumers to search for alternative ways in meeting their energy demand. Currently, many countries are permitting residential consumers to install renewable forms of energy sources. With Eskom contending to meet the load demand, load shedding was introduced, in order to reduce the load demand during certain periods of the day. If load shedding was never introduced, the load demand may have resulted in the grid collapsing.

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