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Bahir Dar University (2018)

THE INDIGENOUS ADAPTIVE STRATEGIES OF PASTORAL COMMUNITIES TO RECURRENT DROUGHT ON LIVELIHOODS THE CASE OF ERER WOREDA, SITI ZONE, SOMALI REGION

ABDIRAHIM GARAT HUSSEIN

Titre : THE INDIGENOUS ADAPTIVE STRATEGIES OF PASTORAL COMMUNITIES TO RECURRENT DROUGHT ON LIVELIHOODS THE CASE OF ERER WOREDA, SITI ZONE, SOMALI REGION

Auteur : ABDIRAHIM GARAT HUSSEIN

Université de soutenance : Bahir Dar University

Grade : MASTER OF SCIENCE IN THE DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2018

Résumé
Drought which is hydro-meteorological hazard has remained the leading cause of disaster and human suffering in Ethiopia in terms of frequency, area coverage and the number of people affected. The main objective of this study was to examine the indigenous adaptive strategies of the pastoral communities to recurrent droughts on livelihood in Erer Woreda, Somali Region. The study used structured questionnaires, key informant interviews and focused groups discussions to collect both quantitative and qualitative primary data. Secondary data sources were also used. The multiple logistic regression model was utilized the quantitative data while qualitative information was arranged and analyzed thematically. The results identified that the variables cause of drought, capacity to withhold drought, drought management strategy, limited drought intervention, early warning drought preparedness and limited early warning information were statistically significant. On the other hand, lacks of drought contingency and drought venerability were statistically insignificant. The results also showed that climate change had a huge negative effect on the early recovery progress. Loss of pasture accounted for 31% of the effects of drought on pastoral households while loss of water accounted for 25%. Other effect of drought included loss of livestock, loss of income and loss of family members with 18%, 5% and 3% respectively. Post drought recovery strategies included livelihood diversification with 47% of the population practicing it. Female dominated herd (15%) was an important post drought recovery strategy as during this time, the stocking rates are low but the need for breeding stocks are high. Female herds are expected to give birth and replenish the herd. Herd diversification was another important strategy with 10% of the population keeping difference species of livestock as a coping and recovery strategy. Pastoralists that are left completely destitute due to drought rely on restocking accounting for 5% of the population. According to the pastoralists external agents provide important services that influence their recovery in the post drought periods. Such services include provision of water with 43%, provision of relief food accounting for 30% while provision of employment and early warning services which accounted for 20% and 7% respectively. The study concluded that drought had a huge impact on the poor households because they were particularly vulnerable as they were mostly dependent on small stock animals, which are highly vulnerable to drought. The study also concluded that there is need for the recognition and maintenance of pastoral cultures, traditions and laws in mainstream policy making process as these mechanisms are important for successful implementation of government programmes to address drought in pastoral areas. Environment problem is also one of the greatest factors which trigger the community migrated from place to place. The diversification strategy the participants’ uses assisted to cope up the early drought problem with a sustainable manor.

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