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Haramaya University (2021)

EFFECT OF CLIMATE AND LAND USE/LAND COVER CHANGE ON LIVESTOCK FEED AVAILABILITY, TRENDS AND CAMEL MILK PRODUCTION IN EAST GUJI ZONE, ETHIOPIA

Habte Wakjira, Matiwos

Titre : EFFECT OF CLIMATE AND LAND USE/LAND COVER CHANGE ON LIVESTOCK FEED AVAILABILITY, TRENDS AND CAMEL MILK PRODUCTION IN EAST GUJI ZONE, ETHIOPIA

Auteur : Habte Wakjira, Matiwos

Université de soutenance : Haramaya University

Grade : DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN CLIMATE SMART AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION 2021

Résumé partiel
This study was aimed to analyse the impacts of climate and land use/land cover change on livestock feed availability, quality, milk yield and physicochemical composition. The study used a mixed research approach whereby quantitative and qualitative data were gathered from multiple sources to address the impacts of climate variability on livestock production and livelihood of pastoral agro-pastoral communities of Gujji zone. Data on the perception of local communities were collected from 198 randomly selected households using a semi-structured questionnaire. Climate data were obtained from the national meteorological agency to assess climatic water balance. The land use/land cover data were generated from Landsat images of 1986, 1995, 2010 and 2018. Moreover, samples of edible portions from 16 browse plant species were collected during the dry and wet seasons and their chemical compositions were analyzed. Furthermore, twenty lactating camels with 2-3 months postpartum and 3-4 parities were selected for evaluations of milk yield and the physicochemical properties, and body temperature measurements. The result of this finding showed that majority of the respondents perceived decreasing trends of rainfall and feed availability. Similarly, the trend analysis of rainfall showed declining trends of annual (-4.7 mm), autumn (-4.5 mm) and winter (-0.54 mm) rainfall. There was significant difference (p< 0.001) in death of cattle and small ruminants than camel per household during the disastrous drought occurrence of 2008/9 and 2015/16. Nonetheless, the result indicated a significant difference (p< 0.01) in the amount of milk yield (3.32 litre/day) of dairy camel during dry periods than cattle and small ruminants. This study also revealed transition of land use/cover from grassland, woody and forest vegetation cover to bush/shrub and cropland in the study area.

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