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Instituto Politécnico de Bragança (2018)

Variation of yield and composition of essential oils from Mint and Basil in response to mycorrhizae bio-elicitor and hydric stress

Mota, Íris Alves

Titre : Variation of yield and composition of essential oils from Mint and Basil in response to mycorrhizae bio-elicitor and hydric stress

Auteur : Mota, Íris Alves

Université de soutenance : Instituto Politécnico de Bragança

Grade : Mestre em Farmácia e Química de Produtos Naturais 2018

Résumé
Nowadays, faced with the reality of climate change and increasing threat of unstable precipitation and temperature increase, it is necessary to find new methods of cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAP), since the climate has great implications for the plant metabolism. The exploitation of water is particularly important in arid or semi-arid climates such as the Mediterranean. A common consequence associated with the occurrence of water stress is the reduction of the biomass that in the context of the crop production, results in the saving of water but does not compensate the loss of profit. However, in the last decade, the application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) has been considered an important strategy to counteract the effects of water stress while improving crop yield and quality. In the present study, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three factors was performed to investigate the effect of AMF and water stress on the essential oil (EO) composition, yield, and physiological and morphological characteristics of mint (Mentha sp.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv. Genovese Gigante). The factors included AMF inoculation (Glomus intraradices), an irrigation level (mild water stress (60% Field capacity)) and the interaction of both AMF and drought stress. In addition, the effects of plant drying and harvesting at two different stages (winter and late spring) on yield and quality of essential oils were examined. Initially, the seeds were germinated, and the plants transplanted and transferred to a greenhouse, allowing a better control of the environment conditions. During the experiment, different functional characteristics were recorded to obtain information related to the influence of AMF and hydric stress on plant development. After each harvest, the yield of the essential oils was registered and finally the latter were analyzed with the aid of GC and GC-MS. The main EO constituents for mint were Piperitenone oxide (22%–91%) and for basil Eugenol (1%-51%) and Linalool (18%-60%). Overall, the highest amount of Piperitenone oxide (91%) was obtained in the 1st harvest with plants under hydric stress and posteriorly dried and the highest amount of Eugenol (51%) was obtained in the 1st harvest with plants under hydric stress, distillated in fresh. In addition, the highest amount of Linalool (60%) was obtained with mycorrhizal plants (without hydric stress) from the 2nd harvest and posteriorly dried. Drought conditions decreased the height and biomass, whereas AMF plants ameliorated the adverse effect of drought conditions. In general, mycorrhizal inoculation resulted in an improvement in the growth parameters as well as the phytochemical and physiological characteristics of mint and basil. In conclusion, the results of this study might be useful to improve the productivity, cultivation management and quality of mint and basil in warmer countries and with less input of agrochemical

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