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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Grèce → Μείωση της βροχόπτωσης στην Α. Μεσόγειο και η σχέση της με το φαινόμενο Enso : διερεύνηση με τις μεθόδους της δενδροκλιματολογίας : [υπό] Δημητρίου Δ. Σαρρή

University of Patras (2008)

Μείωση της βροχόπτωσης στην Α. Μεσόγειο και η σχέση της με το φαινόμενο Enso : διερεύνηση με τις μεθόδους της δενδροκλιματολογίας : [υπό] Δημητρίου Δ. Σαρρή

Σαρρής Δημήτριος

Titre : Μείωση της βροχόπτωσης στην Α. Μεσόγειο και η σχέση της με το φαινόμενο Enso : διερεύνηση με τις μεθόδους της δενδροκλιματολογίας : [υπό] Δημητρίου Δ. Σαρρή

Auteur : Σαρρής Δημήτριος

Université de soutenance : University of Patras

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2008

Résumé

The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) describes atmospheric circulation in the eastern tropical pacific related to ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation), a phenomenon of global climatic significance. After the late 1970s, SOI’s strongest negative phase in 150 year was found to coincide with the strongest positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) in 180 years. Correlation analysis between SOI and NAOI during 1950-2007 revealed a statistically significant connection between the 20 strongest negativephases of the Sept.-Nov. SOI and the following winter’s (Dec.-Feb.) NAOI phases only after 1978. Similarly, the 20 strongest positive phases of the Oct.-Dec. and Nov.-Jan. SOI of 1950-2007 produced a statistically significant correlation with the following winter’s (Dec.-Feb.) NAOI phases afterthe late 1970s. Such relationships coincided with reduced winter precipitation in the eastern Mediterranean. If these SOI-NAOI connections hold, the possibility exists to forecast winter precipitation conditions in regions effected by NAO from the previous autumn’s SOI state (with even a 90% accuracy for regions of Greece). Annual radial stem increment was analysed in Pinus halepensis subsp. halepensis and Pinus halepensis subsp. brutia trees for Thermo-Mediterranean vegetation zones of the Greek islands of Zakinthos, Skiros, Samos and Crete (Ierapetra). Tree-ring width was found to be verysensitive to precipitation and produced a statistically significant correlation with annual rainfall from mean of 37 meteorological stations of the eastern Mediterranean. Tree-rings also indicated that annual rainfall reached its lowest values in nearly 200 years after the 1970s. This reduction in growth coincides with recent global warming. Thus, it is in line with IPCC (2007) climate model projections’ that the Mediterranean will experience a significant decline in precipitation as global warming progresses, as was the case in the recent past. It also raises the question whether recent SOI-NAOI links (involved in the recent decline in precipitation in the eastern Mediterranean) are also connected to global warming. During moist periods of the 20th century (ca. 620-720 mm average annual precipitation) annual tree growth in the regions under investigation was largely controlled by rainfall during a few weeks or months before or during the beginning of the growing season. In contrast, during the driest period on record (1990-1996 ; 480 mm average annual precipitation) growth depended on rainfall of 3-4 years before, including the year of tree ring formation. This suggests that water from deeper ground, accumulated during rainfall of previous years and became increasingly important as drought intensified. Deep rooting must be involved in such a process. However, a series of dry years may exhaust deeper ground “moisture reserves”. In this case pines may be pushed very closeto their survival limits and can even be desiccated. Such incidents were recorded in Samos and Achaia (Peloponnesus) of Greece where pines died in late summer 2000 and 2007, including some 80-year-old trees. Mean annual precipitation for the studied area in 2090-2099 is projected to decrease by even 30% compared to 1980-99 levels, based on Α1B-SRES (IPCC 2007), reaching 390 mm. These levels of rainfall are far bellow the threshold of 480 mm determined as critical for the investigated populations of Pinus to survive drought by relying on deeper moisture reserves. Thus, if such conditions persist during the 21st century they will contribute to the risk of devastation for Thermo-Mediterranean zone forests. Combined with higher summer temperatures and fire outbreaks the risk of desertification will also increase.

Université de soutenance : University of Patras

Mots clés : Climate changes ; Precipitation ; Pinus halepensis ; Southern oscillation index (SOI) ; North Atlantic oscillation Index (NAOI) ; Tree-rings ; Drought ; Greece ;

Présentation de la thèse

Page publiée le 7 octobre 2010, mise à jour le 8 novembre 2022