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Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (2021)

Evaluación de sequías y del riesgo potencial a la ocurrencia de incendios forestales en ecosistemas altoandinos mediante uso de sensores remotos

Ccanchi Espinoza, Yerson Jaime

Titre : Evaluación de sequías y del riesgo potencial a la ocurrencia de incendios forestales en ecosistemas altoandinos mediante uso de sensores remotos

Auteur : Ccanchi Espinoza, Yerson Jaime

Université de soutenance : Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina

Grade : Ingeniero Agrícola 2021

Résumé
In recent decades, the record of the occurrence of forest fires on natural ecosystems has increased in regions of the Peruvian Andes. However, research on the environment favorable to the development of these events is scarce. This study characterizes the climatic and vegetative conditions on the Andean grasslands, Andean scrublands and natural forests of Cajamarca and Cusco, regions mostly affected by these events during the 2002-2016 period. The climatic variables of precipitation and maximum temperature were analyzed using the PISCO product from SENAMHI. Vegetation was characterized from vegetation indices, for which MOD09A1 reflectivity data from the MODIS sensor were used. It has been identified that the low humidity levels and the high temperatures typical of the droughts that occurred in regions of the Andean-Amazon basin, related to positive anomalies of sea surface temperature in the Pacific (during El Niño events) and the Atlantic During 2005, 2010 and 2016, they reached the evaluated regions, generating a favorable environment for a severe increase in forest fires. The analysis of accumulated precipitation, frequency of dry days and the frequency of hot days indicate that these would be better related to the development of forest fires during the dry period and the beginning of the rainy season. In turn, thresholds are identified for the vegetation indices VARI (for Cajamarca) and GVMI (for Cusco) that define the potential vegetative conditions for the increase of forest fires in a normal year with high occurrence. The monitoring of these climatic and vegetative factors would contribute to establishing strategies that lead to the reduction of the negative impacts that forest fires have on high Andean ecosystems, hydrological regimes and water availability in the country.

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Page publiée le 17 novembre 2022