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St. Paul’s University (2018)

Effects of water scarcity on household’s livelihood in selected informal settlements in Kitale town, Trans Nzoia County, Kenya

Nzioka, Francis Mwaniki

Titre : Effects of water scarcity on household’s livelihood in selected informal settlements in Kitale town, Trans Nzoia County, Kenya

Auteur : Nzioka, Francis Mwaniki

Université de soutenance : St. Paul’s University

Grade : Masters of Development Studies 2018

Résumé
The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of water scarcity on household‟s livelihood in selected informal settlements in Kitale town. The study was based on the following specific objectives : To identify the effect of water sources on household‟s livelihoods ; to establish the effect of water management practices ; to assess‟ the effect of water stakeholders and to establish mitigation measures on household‟s livelihoods in selected informal settlement in Kitale town. The study was guided and informed by game theory and neoclassical theory. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The target population was 1600 household and 320 households were sampled to represent the population. Primary data collected in this study was quantitative and qualitative. Data collected was analyzed by the use of descriptive statistics using frequencies and percentages. The findings were presented using tables. From the findings, majority of the respondents indicated that water drawn from shallow wells caused health problems. On water management practices and household livelihoods, majority of the respondents indicated that they did not have piped water in their households. Majority of the respondents when asked on whether NZOWASCO supplied piped water in their village, cumulatively they said that the company did not perform well in their role of providing water in the village. It was therefore concluded that ; water sources had significant effect on household livelihoods. Water management practices had significant effect on household livelihoods ; and statistically there was a significant relationship between measures to water scarcity and household livelihood. The study recommends that the community, county government and water agencies should protect and safeguard water sources in the study area. There is evidence to show that these can contribute to water scarcity and diseases if they are not protected. The water distrubtion company should review their water pricing downwards so that the consumers can access it an affordable price.(pro-poor tariffs). The water distribution chain should increase the number of water kiosks to bring it closer to the consumers. This will lower the water prices since the longer the distance from the kiosk, the higher the price. The study recommends that NZOWASCO, Water service trust fund, Lake Victoria Water Service Board and NGOs should make an effort to see that there is piped water and deep drilled wells in the selected informal settlements so as to reach as many households as possible. All stakeholders especially the non-state actors should invest heavily in water resources to cushion members of the public in the informal settlements from water scarcity which impacts on their livelihoods directly. The study recommends that the county government, through ministry of Water and Irrigation and non-state actors need to increase levels of awareness on Rain Water Harvesting and good storage within the area to ensure constant supply of water at household levels. There is also need to consider removing tax attached to storage containers to lower the price for affordability in many households

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