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İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi (2022)

Analyse de la dynamique des lacs salés avec des techniques d’interféromètre radar à ouverture artificielle

Bilgilioglu, Burhan Baha

Titre : Analyse de la dynamique des lacs salés avec des techniques d’interféromètre radar à ouverture artificielle

Auteur : Bilgilioglu, Burhan Baha

Université de soutenance : İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2022

Résumé partiel
Wetlands are important ecosystems and productive habitats due to their contributions such as the survival of many endemic plant and animal species, the control of floods, the improvement of water quality and the continuation of biological diversity. It is important to protect and monitor wetlands because of their aesthetic, cultural, socioeconomic, recreational, and ecological features, as well as their important contributions such as feeding groundwater resources, increasing agricultural soil productivity, regulating the water cycle, and reducing carbon emissions. To define a region as a wetland, three basic features must be present in the region : The first is wetland hydrology, which describes the water content in the area. The second is the physico-chemical properties of the area, which show that the area has a unique wetland soil structure. The third important feature is the biological diversity, which includes living species that survive in this area and have adapted by accepting the area as a habitat. These three basic features cannot be considered separately from each other in the definition and determination of wetlands.

Salt lakes, which are an important part of inland water ecosystems, are distinguished from other lakes because they are fed by underground water sources and are very sensitive to climatic conditions. Salt lakes, which have aesthetic, cultural, economic, recreational, scientific, and ecological features, are the most important indicators of environmental and climatic change. Salt lakes, which can exist under various conditions such as very cold and high temperatures, correspond to 44% of the total volume of all lakes on Earth and 23% of their area. Salt lakes on all continents in the world are generally located in arid basins where evaporation is higher than precipitation. Salt lakes have physiological and biochemical biota that allow them to tolerate high salt levels, and they are highly sensitive and responsive to even small climatic changes. Areas with high mineral content such as salt lakes are suitable habitats for invertebrates, fish, and waterfowl. About one third of the salt lakes in the world are in semi-arid (200-500 mm precipitation per year) and arid (25-200 mm precipitation per year) regions. Evaporation in these areas is high and often exceeds precipitation. Salt lakes, which are affected very rapidly and dramatically by low rate of climatic changes, human-induced contacts, and have a very dynamic structure, are important wetlands that should be monitored seasonally in short periods of time. Remote Sensing (RS) technologies and methods developed in parallel with technological developments can be used as an ideal platform for monitoring and evaluating the volume dynamics of wetlands. By using satellite images, it is possible to obtain information about the wetland rapidly with the minimum need for ground measurements and the management policies can be determined.

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Page publiée le 30 décembre 2022