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İstanbul Teknik Üniversites (2020)

Urmia lake desiccation as a new source of dust in the middle east : Investigation of the anthropogenic impacts and climatic factors on drying up of urmia lake

ALIZADE GOVARCHIN GHALE Yusuf

Titre : Urmia lake desiccation as a new source of dust in the middle east : Investigation of the anthropogenic impacts and climatic factors on drying up of urmia lake

ORTADOĞU’DA YENİ BİR TOZ KAYNAĞI OLARAK TANINAN URMİYE GÖLÜ : URMİYE GÖLÜNÜN KURUMASINA NEDEN OLAN İNSAN VE İKLİM FAKTÖRLERİN İNCELENMES

Auteur : ALIZADE GOVARCHIN GHALE Yusuf

Université de soutenance : İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2020

Résumé partiel
In recent decades, some of the world’s water bodies, such as the Aral Sea, Dead Sea, Lake Poopó, Lake Eyre and Lake Mead have been shrinking mostly due to human-induced activities and climate change. Desertification and salinization caused by the drying up of these lakes have led to soil degradation and dust storms, which have negative impacts on people’s health and the environment as well. Urmia Lake, the largest inland lake of Iran has lost most of its water surface area over the past 2 decades mainly due to agricultural development and decreasing precipitation in the basin. As a result, more than 90% of the water surface area of this unique hypersaline lake has changed to saline body. Preparing a comprehensive rehabilitation plan for Urmia Lake is essential. A critical step for preparing such a plan is quantifying the water budget (balance) changes and real factors that cause the decline in the water level of Urmia Lake. On the other hand, understanding the dynamics of Land Use Land Cover (LULC) is one of the main issues to have a sustainable water management system in Urmia Lake Basin. Remote sensing technology and Geographical Information Systems (GISs) can help to determine the systematic and random changes over time to provide an environmental management system, prevent environmental degradation and act correctly and effectively. Due to the lack of detailed studies in these fields, the main objectives of this thesis are ; 1- Monitoring the long-term salinization progress, land cover changes and development of irrigated lands in Urmia Lake Basin between 1975 and 2019. This study used hydroclimatic data, Landsat satellite images, and image processing techniques in conjunction with field survey data to analyze the interaction between agricultural lands and Urmia Lake ecosystem. Understanding the interaction between agricultural lands and Urmia Lake ecosystem helps to determine a lake recovery plan and a sustainable water resources management system in the northwestern Iran. In this section, Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC) method was used to monitor Land Use Land Cover (LULC) changes and agricultural development in the basin. Vegetation changes and salinization progress were investigated using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and soil Salinity Index (SI), respectively. 2- Determining the underlying factors for the drying up of Urmia Lake based on drought analysis and water budget equation.

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