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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Afrique du Sud → 2022 → Pre-breeding sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) for improved yield, and oil quality and quantity in Ethiopia.

University of KwaZulu-Natal (2022)

Pre-breeding sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) for improved yield, and oil quality and quantity in Ethiopia.

Teklu, Desawi Hdru.

Titre : Pre-breeding sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) for improved yield, and oil quality and quantity in Ethiopia.

Auteur : Teklu, Desawi Hdru.

Université de soutenance : University of KwaZulu-Natal

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Plant Breeding 2022

Résumé partiel
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. ; 2n = 2x = 26) is a multi-purpose industrial oilseed crop serving the food, feed, and cosmetic industries globally. Sesame is Ethiopia’s most valuable export crop after coffee (Coffea arabica L.), contributing to socio-economic development. However, the productivity of the crop is low (<0.6 ton ha-1 ) and stagnant in Ethiopia and other major sesame growing regions in sub Saharan Africa due to a multitude of production constraints. The low yield of sesame is attributable to lack of high-yielding and well-adapted varieties, with less capsule shattering ; resistant/tolerant to biotic and abiotic stresses ; a lack of modern crop production technologies and well developed infrastructure. Sesame remains a largely under-researched and underutilized crop in Ethiopia despite its economic value in the local, regional and international trades. There is a need for a dedicated sesame genetic improvement programme to develop and deploy new improved varieties with farmer and market-preferred traits. Therefore, the specific objectives of this study were : i) to document sesame production opportunities and constraints and farmer-and market-preferred varieties and traits in eastern and southwestern Ethiopia as a guide for breeding ; ii) to determine the variance components, broad-sense heritability (h 2b) and association of seed and oil yield-related traits in Ethiopian sesame germplasm for effective breeding ; iii) to determine the extent of genetic variation among 100 diverse sesame germplasm collections of Ethiopia using phenotypic traits and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and select distinct and contrasting genotypes for breeding and iv) to determine the genetic diversity and relationships among Ethiopia’s sesame germplasm collections using seed oil content and fatty acid compositions and diagnostic SSR markers and select genetically unique and promising parental lines for breeding. Different but complementary research activities were conducted to attain the objectives.

The first study was conducted using a participatory rural appraisal (PRA) involving 160 farmers in two selected sesame growing regions and four districts in Ethiopia. A considerable proportion of the respondent farmers (56.0%) reported cultivating sesame using seeds of unknown varieties often sourced from the informal seed sector. The most important constraints to sesame production in the study areas were lack of access to improved seeds (reported by 83.0% of respondents), low yield potential of the existing varieties (73.8%), diseases (69.4%), and low market price (68.8%). These constraints were attributed to the lack of a dedicated breeding programme, formal seed sector, strong extension services, and well-developed pre-and post-harvest infrastructures. The most important market-preferred traits of sesame included true-to-type seed, white seed colour, and high seed oil content. Reasonable market price, resistance to crop diseases, drought tolerance, resistance to crop insect pests, higher seed yield, higher thousand-seed weight, higher oil content, white seed colour, early maturity, and good oil qualities such as aroma and taste were the vital farmer-preferred attributes in order of significance. Hence, these traits should be integrated in current and future sesame breeding programs.

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Page publiée le 29 décembre 2022