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İzmir Yüksek Teknoloji Enstitüsü (2022)

Hydrological and meteorological drought and trend analysis in afghanistan and their implications on transboundary rivers

HAYAT Ehsanullah

Titre : Hydrological and meteorological drought and trend analysis in afghanistan and their implications on transboundary rivers

Afganistan için hidrolojik ve meteorolojik kuraklık ve eğilim analizi ve bunların sınır aşan nehirler üzerine muhtemel etkileri

Auteur : HAYAT Ehsanullah

Université de soutenance : İzmir Yüksek Teknoloji Enstitüsü

Grade : DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in Civil Engineering 2022

Résumé
Afghanistan as a landlocked country located within central and southwestern Asia has an arid to semi-arid climate. Most of the people are involved in agricultural activities and major part of the country’s gross domestic product depends on agriculture, but the country has the lowest water storage capacity. Consecutive periods of droughts and rapid snowmelt due to climate change have made it more challenging for convenient water resources management practices. Other major concern is transboundary water that flows to downstream countries without any sharing agreement rather than one on the Helmand River. Therefore, this study first aims to investigate the historical hydrological and meteorological drought characteristics across the whole country using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) for meteorological drought analysis for a period 1979-2019, and Streamflow Drought Index (SDI) is used for hydrological drought analysis using two different time series (1960-1979 and 2008-2020) from 55 hydro-meteorological stations. Missing streamflow data in four stations across four transboundary River Basins (RBs) of the country is modeled using Remote Sensing (RS) techniques via Landsat satellite imagery time series data from 1988 to 2021, and which is the novelty of this study. Afterwards, trends in streamflow, precipitation and temperature are examined using Mann-Kendall’s and Sen’s slope statistical tests. A four decadal countrywide drought maps are also generated. Finally, the effects of droughts and trends on transboundary rivers in the country are investigated. Data from (55) ground stations is used for this purpose in this study.

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Page publiée le 4 janvier 2023