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Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi (2019)

Comparative anaysis of the anatomical characteristics of the oak species (Quercus spp.) in Northern Iraq


Titre : Comparative anaysis of the anatomical characteristics of the oak species (Quercus spp.) in Northern Iraq

Kuzey Irak’taki meşe türlerinin (Quercus spp.) anatomik özelliklerinin karşılaştırmalı analizi


Université de soutenance : Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi

Grade : Ph.D in Department of Bioengineering and Sciences 2019

Résumé partiel
The current study is aimed to investigate and describe the anatomical characters of the genus Quercus that grow naturally in the mountain range of Duhok, Erbil and Sulaymani at different altitudes in north of Iraq. We used light and scanning electron microscope to determine the anatomical characters. Also effect of altitude and provinces on the anatomical characters were studied. In the region, no studies have been conducted on this subject and comparative wood anatomies of oak species according to two environmental variables have been studied for the first time. The genus Quercus L. (Oak) is represented by four taxa in the region. These include Quercus brantii (previously known as Q. aegilops in Iraqi flora), Quercus infectoria subsp. veneris, Quercus libani and Quercus macranthera. Anatomically oak leaves are dorsiventral for all taxa while the palisade is divided into two rows only in Quercus brantii and Quercus libani. Lamina character show the highest thickness value in Quercus infectoria among the other taxa. The midrib in all taxa are spherical to semi spherical and sub-globose in shape ; usually the adaxial side is in the form of a hump, while the abaxial side is a semicircle. For cortex thickness ; the highest value is seen in Quercus macranthera. The anatomical characterization of petiole goes along with the characteristics of midrib and sub-veins of lamina. Quercus species has more than one type of trichome present in all parts of the leaf (both abaxial and adaxial surfaces), such as glandular and non-glandular (unicellular, fasciculate and stellate). The stellate trichomes are observed more dense than the other. While the frequency of stellate trichome on abaxial surface is definitely higher than adaxial surface for all taxa. The number of stellate trichome in Quercus brantii is higher than in other species. Although the number of arms vary between 2 and 9, they are up to 11 in some species (as in Q. brantii). In most cases, the abaxial trichomes are considerably longer than the adaxial ones. The length of the arms of the stellate trichomes are the longest in Quercus infectoria subsp. veneris in both surfaces (abaxial and adaxial) in terms of petiole. The unicellular trichomes are less dense than the stellate trichomes in the species studied. Glandular trichome density and stellate fasciculate trichome length and density are significantly related with oak taxa that we studied. Stellate fasciculate trichome density and unicellular trichomes density are directly related with altitude while only stellate fasciculate trichome density is significantly related with provinces. Slightly wavy anticlinal walls are the dominant type of wall on abaxial surface of this genus. The shape of epidermal cells on adaxial surface are polygonal or rectangular in shape and also larger than the cells on the abaxial surface. The genus Quercus has stomata of a hypostomatic. The stomata on the lower (abaxial) epidermis were scattered among the ordinary epidermal cells which belong to anomocytic type. The rims of the stomata which slightly raised the epidermis level were covered epicuticular waxes as irregular platelets (Crystalloids type) in some examined species under SEM such as Q. infectoria subsp. veneris and Q. macranthera. Palisade leaf mesophyll thickness was less variable than spongy leaf mesophyll thickness especially for Quercus brantii at Duhok province.


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