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University of Strathclyde (2022)

Analysis of development policies for women’s empowerment and children’s welfare in MENA countries

Yaylali, Ayse

Titre : Analysis of development policies for women’s empowerment and children’s welfare in MENA countries

Auteur : Yaylali, Ayse

Université de soutenance : University of Strathclyde

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2022

Résumé partiel
The welfare of women and children is an essential ingredient of development. Therefore, this issue has been at the centre of policies concerning economic development. Since 2000, United Nation’s commitment to achieving development goals through gender equality, reducing child mortality, improving maternal health and access to education has been reflected within the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) until 2015. The progress made in line with attaining the MDGs carried on with implementing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that again emphasise the importance of gender equality, empowerment of all women and girls, health and well-being at all ages, access to quality education and lifelong learning. This dissertation contributes to the existing literature by studying the importance of countries’ historical treatment in empowering women both in social and economic spheres and improving their well-being. In addition to the historical treatment, the development policies in line with achieving the MDGs, such as Universal Primary Education (UPE) and Universal Health Coverage (UHC) in Sudan and Jordan, are analysed. In a nutshell, this dissertation provides an overview of the development efforts by referring to different cases in countries that belong to the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region where informal institutions such as norms and traditions play an important role in shaping individuals’ behaviour. The first chapter aims at highlighting the importance of historical institutions on women’s empowerment by studying the case of Ottoman existence in Egypt. Egypt serves as an excellent example because, during its existence between the years 1517-1798, Ottoman authorities settled down only in particular regions of Egypt. Their existence had shaped the social norms and traditions, which leads to differences in women’s behaviour in these specific geographical regions. The differences in women’s attitudes are identified using Spatial Regression Discontinuity Design (RDD), where the outcomes on women’s development are identified and compared at the geographical level. The results depict an overall picture of women’s position within the regions occupied and dominated by Ottoman institutions. The results indicate that women’s domestic autonomy outcomes that refers to women’s power in decision-making and standing against domestic violence, are better on Ottoman side of the Border


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