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University of Salford (2011)

Rehabilitation of the urban water system in Khartoum

El Hassan, ARM

Titre : Rehabilitation of the urban water system in Khartoum

Auteur : El Hassan, ARM

Université de soutenance : University of Salford.

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2011

Water is the most common substance on earth, covering more than 70% of the planet’s surface. The supply of fresh water has been shrinking ; up until now water has been treated as an unlimited resource that has been provided as cheaply as possible and in any quantity desired. Yet by the year 2020 there will only be half as much water per capita as there was in 1970s. Therefore, the world has to consider efficient water management, introduce recycling, prevent pollution and promote water conservation. Although Khartoum City (the Sudanese capital) is located in the central part of Sudan at the confluence of two rivers (the White Nile and the Blue Nile) ; the problems of urban water shortage are chronic ; the water service does not cover all the towns in Khartoum State, and the supplied water is not 100% pure water due to the pollution of shallow underground water sources and this can cause disease. The continuous breakdown in the supply of urban water in the Khartoum districts leads users to use bottled water for drinking and for other purposes. Additionally, the consumers utilize tanks to store water for use during the breakdown periods. It has been found that problems with the water system directly affect the traffic and environmental health in Khartoum. The main aim of this research is to investigate the current situation of the urban water and sanitary system in Khartoum and to identify the impact of these social, economical and environmental factors on the city. The research also aims to draw up a list of recommendations that will lead to improving the implementation and management of the quality and quantity of the water supply in Khartoum City. To achieve this aim, the methodologies used included a literature reVIew, survey questionnaires and interviews with different levels of managers within the Water Authority, Khartoum State. The research discussed and analyzed the results from previous books, research papers, conference proceedings and magazines in the same field as to how to manage urban water in other cities and states. This information and data was analyzed. The results of analysis were tested by second interviews with the same managers within the Khartoum Water Corporation. Their answers and comments were incorporated and a list of recommendations to improve the urban water system in Khartoum is presented at the end of this research.


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