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University of Khartoum (2020)

Integrated Management of Wadi Haseeb Watershed for Sustainable Agriculture Using Remote Sensing, GIS Techniques and Hydrological System, East Khartoum, Sudan

Bushra Mohammed Ahmed Musa Eisa

Titre : Integrated Management of Wadi Haseeb Watershed for Sustainable Agriculture Using Remote Sensing, GIS Techniques and Hydrological System, East Khartoum, Sudan

Auteur : Bushra Mohammed Ahmed Musa Eisa

Université de soutenance : University of Khartoum

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy in Agriculture (Agricultural Engineering) 2020

Résumé partiel
Integrated Watershed Management (IWM) is a process of safeguarding, improvement and optimum utilization of the available natural resources in a watershed on a sustained basis. The objective of the study was to specify an integrated watershed management strategy for sustainable agricultural activities by harvesting rainwater. This study was conducted during the period August 2016 to December 2018 in Wadi Haseeb Watershed, Khartoum State which, it lies at a distance of 65 km southeast of Khartoum. Landsat 8 (173/49) image and digital elevation model (DEM) were acquired in 2016 – 2017, respectively and obtained from Survey Administration – Khartoum State. Daily rainfall records for the period 1989 - 2018 were obtained from Khartoum airport meteorological station and the soil data were obtained from Khartoum State Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation. A questionnaire was designed and distributed by purposive random probability stratification among the inhabitants of 10 preselected villages located within the watershed boundaries to collect data related to previous hydrological information and agricultural activities. An integrated approach of remote sensing (RS), geographic information system (GIS), hydrologic engineering center geospatial hydrologic modeling extension (HEC-GeoHMS) and hydrologic modeling system (HMS4.0) was performed to develop a daily rainfall-runoff model and subsequently identifying the most appropriate water harvesting sites for sustainable agricultural activities. The reliability method was used to analyze the daily rainfall data. Soil conservation service curve number (SCS-CN) and rational methods were adopted to estimate direct water volume runoff. The float measuring method was used to monitor average water discharges which were used for calibrating the runoff model. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data obtained from the questionnaire. The land suitability for certain crops was based on the prevailing environmental condition. The crops water requirements and the water balance were determined by CROPWAT program. Consequently, three scenarios were proposed for an irrigated agriculture area of 10800 hectares located downstream the wadi, of the total 59000 ha suitable land scattered all over the watershed : The first scenario was cultivating the whole area with sorghum, maize, and vegetables ; the second scenario was cultivating of sorghum only while the third scenario was cultivating 800 ha with sorghum only for the inhabitants self-sufficiency. The results indicated that sandy clay loam soil dominated most of the 170,000 ha watershed area, which was 40 km in length and 0.00093 m/m slope. The soil water infiltration rate ranged from 10 to 15 mm/h. The major classes of the land cover were scrub (58.14%), agricultural land (34.5%), rocks (3.98%), built-up (3.33%) and water bodies (0.06%). The average rainfall was 121 mm/year. The watershed was delineated and divided into four basins yielding an average water volume of 23 million cubic meters/month. Based on the hydrological models, three sites were selected for water harvesting and incorporated with earth dams.

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