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Sultan Qaboos University (2020)

Biogas production from food waste via anaerobic digestion

Al-Wahaibiyah, Abeer Said Mohammed.

Titre : Biogas production from food waste via anaerobic digestion.

Auteur : Al-Wahaibiyah, Abeer Said Mohammed.

Université de soutenance : Sultan Qaboos University

Grade : Master of Science (MS) in Chemical and Process Engineering 2020

Résumé partiel
A large proportion of the required world energy nowadays is covered by fossil fuels. The consumption of this non-renewable energy source has been increased tremendously over years. There is a growing interest globally and locally in using different renewable energy sources. On the other hand, more waste is generated and less of this waste is effectively handled in terms of recycling, treatment and disposal. The waste generated is mainly landfilled without sorting. This way of managing solid wastes has both long and short terms environmental effects. Biogas is one of the most promising renewable energy sources, which mitigate the increasing amount of wastes. The major objective of this work was to evaluate the technical and commercial potential for biogas production from the food waste generated in Fahud camp in Petroleum Development Oman (PDO). The specific objective of this work was to evaluate the biogas production potential from different types of food waste and to measure the methane concentration in the biogas produced from each food waste type at 24 h and at 21 incubation days. Several analyses were used in this study including ; determination of dry matter, invitro true digestibility, manual gas production, determination of methane gas concentration using gas chromatography and feed stock nutritional contents evaluation using proximate analysis. The results of the dry matter (DM) of the samples used in this research fluctuated between 20 to 80%. Fruits and vegetables sample showed the highest moisture content (19.6% DM), followed by the mixed food sample with 25.5% DM. On another hand, the date fruit sample showed the highest DM percentage (81.7%), followed by the bread waste sample with 77.2% DM. The results showed that the total biogas gas produced from the food waste samples used in this study through anaerobic digestion (in 24 hours) varies between 76 to 421 ml/1 g DM. The amount is varying based on the composition of the food waste sample. The highest biogas formation rate resulted from the sample with the highest carbohydrate and vii fiber content ; due to its high degradability, (i.e. rice waste sample produced 421 ml/1 g DM, followed by date fruit sample which produced 386 ml / 1 g DM). On another hand, lower biogas production potential obtained from the samples with the highest protein content (i.e. fish waste sample produced 76 ml/1 g DM and meat waste sample produced 83 ml/1 g DM). Furthermore, during the 21 incubation days of anaerobic digestion, a fluctuation in methane concentration observed in all samples which ranged between 20% and 60%. Those fluctuations were attributed to the variation in the methanogenic and fatty acids accumulation levels. The biogas and the preliminary economic evaluation suggest that.

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