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Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (2008)

Oportunidades e desafios para o comércio internacional de biocombustível da Jatropha curcas (pinhão-manso) produzido em países em desenvolvimento

Salé, Nurdine Abdul Cadre

Titre : Oportunidades e desafios para o comércio internacional de biocombustível da Jatropha curcas (pinhão-manso) produzido em países em desenvolvimento

Auteur : Salé, Nurdine Abdul Cadre

Université de soutenance : Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul.

Grade : Mestrado 2008

Résumé
The international biofuel market has been expanding rapidly due to environmental, economic and geopolitical concerns and issues. The biofuel business can offer opportunities for developing countries to produce their own domestic transportation fuels, cut their energy costs, create new jobs in their rural economies, and ultimately build their export markets. There are many biofuel feedstocks being exploited. The interest on non-food energy crops is increasing, and among these Jatropha curcas has been highlighted as a possible source of biodiesel due to its characteristics of growing on barren, eroded lands under harsh climatic conditions, demanding low moisture and in resulting productive harvests. Because J. curcas is well adapted to the arid land and semi-arid conditions of many developing countries, and in face of the promising international biofuel market, several African and Asian countries are seizing biodiesel trade opportunities through exploitation of the benefits of large-scale production and trade of Jatropha. Though it has been widely cultivated in the tropics as a living fence, little is known about the agronomics of this crop for biofuel production. In addition, many Jatropha species are known as highly toxic plants and its cultivation might be a cause of some concerns, regarding food safety and public health. This study is aimed at analyzing the challenges and opportunities of large-scale Jatropha cultivation in developing countries for biodiesel export by addressing the questions how can Jatropha biodiesel be accepted by the potential international market and whether there should be any concerns about cultivating it in large extension. The Strategic Niche Management (SNM) framework was applied to analyze sociotechnological experiments of Jatropha biodiesel production in India, as a case study because this country is currently the world leader in when it comes to cultivate Jatropha on industrial scale. The analyzed Indian projects were selected from on-line electronic data basis and from published research reports. They were described and analyzed according to the niche creation process in relation to agronomic practices to assess the current state of Jatropha cultivation in its production chain. It was found out that Jatropha species offer real opportunities for prospective biofuel-export countries. However, before engaging into large-scale cultivation of Jatropha in developing countries considerable experiments ought to be made with the participation of all stakeholders. They ought to be involved in actor network, learning process trough trial and error, and especially, their expectations should be built on real scientific data and not merely on commercial forecasts. Furthermore, it is to be considered that the access to developed markets is increasingly dependent upon certification systems which take into account certain specific environmental and social, agricultural production conditions which all the biofuel producing countries would be required to fulfil

Assunto(s) : Jatropha cultivation, Agronegócios, Comércio internacional : Exportação, Strategic niche management, Biocombustíveis, Biofuel trade, India, Biodiesel, Africa

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