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Universidade de São Paulo (2010)

Variabilidade espacial do carbono e outros atributos do solo em uma área destinada ao reflorestamento no Rio Grande do Norte

Reina Sánchez Gilma Amparo

Titre : Spatial variability of soil carbon and other attributes in an area destined to reforestation in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

Variabilidade espacial do carbono e outros atributos do solo em uma área destinada ao reflorestamento no Rio Grande do Norte

Auteur : Reina Sánchez, Gilma Amparo

Université de soutenance : Universidade de São Paulo (USP)

Grade : Maîtrise 2010

Soil is an important carbon (C) sink, since atmospheric CO2 concentrations can be attenuated by soil C sequestration. In this context, soils under semi-arid conditions are being evaluated as potential soil C sinks, mainly considering the process of rehabilitation of degraded areas. However, little information is available on the mechanisms associated with soil C sequestration. Moreover, there are uncertainties on soil C stocks estimates because of the lack of knowledge about its spatial variability due to the complexity of physical, chemical and biological processes that directly influence soil C cycle. Soil C spatial variability is associated with a series of natural and human-induced factors and those variations can be expressed in different spatial scales. Therefore, the main objective of the present study was to evaluate the spatial variability of C and soil physical, chemical and biological attributes in a 100 ha area destined to reforestation in the semi-arid region of Rio Grande do Norte (RN), Brazil. In order to do that, a regular grid (40 x 40 m) of 644 sampling points was defined in an area located in the city of Angicos (RN) that belongs to the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido. Samples from the 0-0,1 ; 0,1-0,2 ; e 0,2- 0,3 m soil layers were collected in each sampling point totalizing 1932 soil cores that were used for the following analyses : C, sand, silt, clay, pH, Na, P, Ca, Mg and K. For microbial biomass C, 156 samples were used from the 0-0,1 m soil depth. Samples for soil bulk density (total of 246 samples) were collected in the three mentioned soil layers. Additionally, the following calculations were performed : soil C stocks, base saturations, cation exchange capacity and aluminum saturation. The results were analyzed using classical descriptive statistics and geostatistics. The soil at the studied area is very sandy and presented low values of cation exchange capacity, C content and microbial biomass ; high values of bulk density and soil acidity and medium values of P content and available bases. Those results are typical for soils under native vegetation at the semi-arid region due to unfavorable climatic conditions. From the descriptive analyses, the majority of the studied attributes presented normal distribution. The coefficients of variation (CV) for the majority of the studied attributes presented medium values ; the spatial dependence was moderated with mean range value of 135 m. The majority of the attributes were fitted by the spherical model. Assessment of model adjustment efficiency was performed through internal and external validations and both presented similar trends. The application of modeling technique provides estimations of the range and the spatial dependence magnitude of the evaluated soil attributes. Using kriging techniques, analytical results were interpolated and maps were generated to show the spatial variability of the soil physical, chemical and biological properties. The results from the present study stressed the importance of adequately understand C and other soil properties spatial variability. Such information has important implications for future assessments of soil C sequestration and is useful for potential production of Jatropha in the semi-arid condition of the Brazilian northeast region.

Mots Clés : Carbono Física do solo Geoestatística Modelagem de dados Química do solo Reflorestamento. Geostatistics Modeling Semi-arid region. Soil physical chemical and biological properties


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