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Accueil du site → Doctorat → États-Unis → 2009 → Improving the performance of community-based wildlife management programs : Evidence of Botswana

University of California, Davis (2009)

Improving the performance of community-based wildlife management programs : Evidence of Botswana

Pienarr, Elizabeth Frances

Titre : Improving the performance of community-based wildlife management programs : Evidence of Botswana

Auteur : Pienarr, Elizabeth Frances

Université de soutenance : University of California, Davis

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2009

Résumé
Community Based Natural Resources Management (CBNRM) programs have been introduced in southern Africa to create a conservation incentive for rural communities located around protected areas. These programs assume that if rural communities are granted user rights to wildlife, communities will actively conserve wildlife and wildlife habitat. Unfortunately, researchers have shown that CBNRM programs have failed to provide a direct and transparent link between wildlife conservation and benefits to the community. This dissertation argues that the receipt of CBNRM benefits must be directly contingent on active conservation of wildlife and wildlife habitat by community members. In 2007 a survey was conducted in the member villages of five CBNRM programs in Botswana. A major purpose of this survey was to determine community members’ willingness to engage in various conservation tasks. Survey respondents were presented with contingent behavior questions that proposed the implementation of a revised CBNRM program. Under this new CBNRM program community members would be hired into seven different conservation tasks that address different sources of conflict between people and wildlife, namely : the active herding of livestock throughout the day to prevent livestock depredation, the construction of more secure kraals for livestock, patrolling fields at night to prevent crop raiding by wildlife, the construction of more secure fences around fields, anti-poaching enforcement, the revegetation of wildlife habitat and wildlife monitoring. The results of the contingent behavior analysis demonstrate clearly that community members require higher payment for those tasks that they consider to be difficult or dangerous. Conservation tasks that may bring community members into contact with wildlife are considered to be particularly dangerous. Women require higher payment to engage in conservation tasks than men. Community members from better performing CBNRM programs require higher payment to engage in conservation tasks. Median reservation wages for engaging in the various conservation tasks range from BWP 2 (US$ 0.30) per day for revegetation to BWP 14 (US$ 2.10) per day for wildlife monitoring and BWP 19 (US$ 2.85) per day for herding livestock. Based on hypothetical scenarios for a small, medium-sized and large village, it was determined that the surveyed CBNRM programs generate sufficient revenues to fund each of these conservation tasks individually. So based on the analysis in this dissertation, it can be concluded that CBNRM programs can be redesigned to include employment for community members in conservation tasks. A direct link between wildlife conservation and community benefits can be created.

Présentation (GradWorks)

Page publiée le 13 mai 2011, mise à jour le 3 septembre 2017