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Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (2002)

Feeding strategies for dual-purpose cattle in semi-arid areas of Central Tanzania

Bwire, Julius M. N

Titre : Feeding strategies for dual-purpose cattle in semi-arid areas of Central Tanzania

Auteur : Bwire, Julius M. N

Grade : Thesis (doctoral) 2002

Université de soutenance : Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

This thesis presents studies on the influence of pre-weaning management systems and dry season feeding regimes on post-weaning performance of improved zebu heifers (Paper I), the effect of supplementary feeding strategies before and after calving on the performance of dual-purpose cows (Paper II) and an evaluation of feed resources that can be utilised by small holder farmers under a zero grazing system (Paper III-V). The experiments were carried out at Livestock Production Research Institute (LPRI), Mpwapwa, Tanzania on stall-fed cows, although heifers were allowed to graze during the wet season. In Paper I pre-weaning management (artificial or restricted suckling with or without supplementation) had no influence on the post-weaning performance of heifers. A post-weaning feeding regime with concentrate supplementation of 1 kg DM per day (13 MJ/kgDM, 160-200g CP/kgDM) during the dry season improved the performance of the heifers to 19 months and 203 kg as age and weight at onset of puberty. In Paper II cows on the high plane of nutrition produced more milk than cows on the low plane of nutrition, while intake of hay was similar and tended to decrease towards calving but increased again after calving. Liveweight change and body condition differed between treatments only after calving. In Paper III harvesting maize tops at grain maturity and 3 weeks later yielded higher biomass of tops, higher crude protein, digestibility and metabolisable energy, and lower acid and neutral detergent fibre. The potential nutritive value was higher in maize tops stored in a shed compared to other methods. Dry matter intake and milk yield were higher on grass hay and green maize tops than maize stovers after normal grain harvest. In Paper IV the most available and highest yielding grasses were used to formulate rations with two grass species in a 50:50 ratio. The ration with Cenchrus ciliaris and Cynadon plectostachyus had the highest digestibility, energy and protein, and cows produced more milk when on this ration. In Paper V, when two levels (100% or 50%) of Acacia tortilis and Fadherbia albida pods in the concentrate mixture was compared as protein supplements, milk yield differed between treatments and an unpleasant odour was found in milk with 100% Acacia tortilis.

Mots clés : Ecology, Zebu heifers, Dual-purpose cows, Livestock feeding, Tanzania, Agricultural studies, Social sciences


Page publiée le 27 mai 2011, mise à jour le 17 juin 2017