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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Afrique du Sud → 2009 → Synergistic potentials and isolation of bioactive compounds from the extracts of two helichrysum species indigenous to the Eastern Cape province

University of Fort Hare (2009)

Synergistic potentials and isolation of bioactive compounds from the extracts of two helichrysum species indigenous to the Eastern Cape province

Aiyegoro, Olayinka Ayobami

Titre : Synergistic potentials and isolation of bioactive compounds from the extracts of two helichrysum species indigenous to the Eastern Cape province

Auteur : Aiyegoro, Olayinka Ayobami

Université de soutenance : University of Fort Hare

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy PhD (Microbiology) 2009

Résumé
Helichrysum longifolium and H. pedunculatum belong to the Astereceae family and are used extensively in folkloric medicine in South Africa to manage stress-related ailments and as dressings for wounds normally encountered in circumcision rites, bruises, cuts and sores. The in vitro antibacterial time-kill studies, the synergistic potentials, the phytochemical screenings and antioxidant potentials as well as the isolation of the bioactive compounds from the extracts of these two plants were carried out in this study. The in vitro antibacterial activities and time kill regimes of crude extracts of H. pedunculatum was assessed. The extracts was active against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria tested at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values for all the susceptible bacteria ranged between 0.1 – 35 mg/ml. The average log reduction in viable cell count in time kill assay ranged between 0.17 Log10 to 6.37 Log10 cfu/ml after 6 h of interaction, and between 0.14 Log10 and 6.99 Log10 cfu/ml after 12 h interaction in 1 × MIC and 2 × MIC of the extract. The effect of the aqueous extract was only bacteriostatic on both reference and environmental strains and the clinical isolates were outrightly resistant to aqueous extract. This is worrisome and this could be one reason why, there is an incidence of high death rate resulting from circumcision wounds infection even after treating such wounds with H. pedunculatum leaf. In vitro antibacterial time kill studies of extracts of H. longifolium was assessed. All test bacteria were susceptible to the methanol extract, while none was susceptible to the aqueous extract. Two of the test bacteria were susceptible to the ethyl acetate extract, while ten and seven were susceptible to the acetone and chloroform extracts respectively at the test concentration of 5 mg/ml. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged between 0.1 and 5.0 mg/ml, while minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) ranged between 1.0 and >5 mg/ml for all the extracts. Average log reductions in viable cell counts for all the extracts ranged between 0.1 Log10 and 7.5 Log10 cfu/ml after 12 h interaction at 1 × MIC and 2 × MIC. Most of the extracts were rapidly bactericidal at 2 × MIC achieving a complete elimination of most of the test organisms within 12 h exposure time. The effect of combinations of the crude extracts of H. pedunculatum leaves and eight antibiotics was investigated by means of checkerboard and time-kill methods. In the checkerboard method, synergies of between 45.83-56.81 percent were observed and this is independent of Gram reaction, with combinations in the aqueous extract yielding largely antagonistic interactions (18.75 percent). The time kill assay also detected synergy that is independent of Gram reaction with a ≥ 3Log10 potentiation of the bactericidal activity of the test antibiotics. We conclude that the crude leaf extracts of H. pedunculatum could be potential source of broad spectrum antibiotics resistance modulating compounds. The interactions between crude extracts of H. longifolium in combination with six first-line antibiotics using both the time-kill and the checkerboard methods were carried out. The time-kill method revealed the highest bactericidal activity exemplified by a 6.7 Log10 reduction in cell density against Salmonella sp. when the extract and Penicillin G are combined at ½ × MIC. Synergistic response constituted about 65 percent, while indifference and antagonism constituted about 28.33 percent and 6.67 percent in the time kill assay, respectively. The checkerboard method also revealed that the extracts improved bactericidal effects of the antibiotics. About 61.67 percent of all the interactions were synergistic, while indifference interactions constituted about 26.67 percent and antagonistic interactions was observed in approximately 11.66 percent. The in vitro antioxidant property and phytochemical constituents of the aqueous crude leaf extracts of H. longifolium and H. pedunculatum was investigated. The scavenging activity on superoxide anions, DPPH, H2O2, NO and ABTS ; and the reducing power were determined, as well as the flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and phenolic contents of the extracts. The extracts exhibited scavenging activity in all radicals tested due to the presence of relatively high total phenol and flavonoids contents in the extracts. Our findings suggest that H. longifolium and H. pedunculatum are endowed with antioxidant phytochemicals and could serve as a base for future drugs. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the leaves of H. longifolium and H. pedunculatum yielded two known compounds. From the n-hexane fraction of H. longifolium a compound was isolated (Stigmasterol) and from the ethyl acetate fraction of H. pedunculatum another compound (β-sitosterol) was isolated. The compounds were isolated and identified using various techniques. The antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic and anti-pyretic activities of these compounds have been reported in literatures. In general, the experiments and tests conducted in this study appear to have justified the folkloric medicinal uses of H. longifolium and H. pedunculatum for the treatment of stress related ailments and wound infections and make a substantial contribution to the knowledge base of the use of herbal medicine for the treatment of the microbial infections.

Mots Clés : Helichrysum - Eastern Cape - Medicinal plants - Eastern Cape- Traditional medicine - Eastern Cape – Antioxidants- Antibiotics

Résumé et version intégrale

Page publiée le 24 novembre 2011, mise à jour le 22 juin 2017