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Universidade de São Paulo (2011)

Tratamento de água para consumo humano de reservatório eutrofizado através de pré e interoxidação, adsorção em carvão ativado e dupla filtração

Calazans Duarte, Marco Antonio

Titre : Tratamento de água para consumo humano de reservatório eutrofizado através de pré e interoxidação, adsorção em carvão ativado e dupla filtração

Auteur : Calazans Duarte, Marco Antonio

Université de soutenance : Universidade de São Paulo

Grade : Tese de Doutorado 2011

Résumé
Disordered basins occupation provoked acceleration of eutrophication, which besides purely aesthetic and landscaping problems, results in occurrence of high phytoplankton densities with potentially toxic cyanobacteria dominance. Alongside physical aging and consequent deterioration of installations, usual treatment technologies do not provide adequate conditions for treating water from reservoirs where occurs recalcitrant chemicals such as pesticides, fertilizers and endocrine disrupters. This work aimed to evaluate double filtration in gravei and sand filters, pre and interoxidation and adsorption with powdered and granulated activated carbon, for water potabilization from eutrophic reservoir with high cyanobacteria density - Gargalheira Weir, Acari, semi-arid region of RN Brazil. The survey consisted of four phases : phase 1 - continuous physic-chemical and biological raw water characterization and static tests in jartest equipment and direct filtration with laboratory sand filters, phase 2 - evaluation of up flow prefiltration with different graded layers, phase 03 - double filtration behavior under four filtration rates and four pre filters and phase 04 - double filtration arrangements study with pre and interoxidation and adsorption with PAC and GAC columns. The average concentrations of nitrogen series, total phosphorus and soluble orthophosphate classified the Gargalheira Weir as eutrophic. High cyanobacteria densities showed the need for weekly monitoring (toxicity bioassays and cyanotoxins analysis). Static bench tests established aluminum hidroxicloride dosages from 13 mg/L to 15 mg/L and pH coagulation 7.6, with flash mixing gradient 700/s and contact time 17 s ; oxidant (chlorine) dosages 2.0 mg CL2.L-1 and 3.0 mg CL2.L-1 and 20 minutes for oxidation time, with acidification elimination ; 15 mg/L CAP dosage with 30 minutes adsorption time. FAP4 (pre filter with layer size 2.0 mm - 3.2 mm) had lower average turbidity and apparent color remnants. Flow rate between 160 m3.m-2.dia-1 and 200 m3.m-2.dia-1 was chosen for its performance and lower financial costs of deployment, reform and expansion of existing units. Double filtration with particle size, thickness of layers and filter support and filtration rates choosed under operational conditions applied showed good performance regarding removal of cyanobacteria cells flakes and total microcystin-LR. Cyanobacteria removal in pre filters ranged from 52% (FAP2) and 96% (FAP4), representing remaining densities between 20,000 and 13,000 cells/mL. Down flow sand filters done final polishing with removal 61% to 98% (9,400 cells/mL to 5,800 cells/mL). Oxidation with chlorine in both inter and pre oxidation with free chlorine residual of about 0.1 mq/L, associated with GAC and PAC adsorption produced final effluent with acceptable quality for TAM, turbidity and true color levels. Pre and interoxidation arrangements with double filtration and GAC adsorption as post treatment stage showed betler performances in removal MON, TOC, ABS254, true and apparent color and turbidity and exhibitid efficience to ensure final effluent quality in particular MCT-LR and TAM removing : GAC columns effluents had reduced MCT-LR concentrations consistently to less than 1.0 µg/L.

Mots Clés : Adsorção ; Cianobactérias ; Dupla filtração ; Oxidação ; Tratamento de água ; Adsorption ; Chemistry oxidation ; Cianobacteria ; Double filtration ; Eutrofization ; Prefilter ; Water treatment

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Page publiée le 24 décembre 2011, mise à jour le 4 juillet 2017