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New Mexico State University (2011)

Hydrological modelling of semi-arid watersheds using enhanced climate data

Ashraf Nour Ahmed Mohamed El-Sadek

Titre : Hydrological modelling of semi-arid watersheds using enhanced climate data

Auteur : Ashraf Nour Ahmed Mohamed El-Sadek

Université de soutenance : New Mexico State University

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2011 )

Résumé
Solving the problems of water shortages and excessive water are the major concerns of the water resource management. Semi-arid watersheds receive 12 to 24 inches of annual rainfall, characterized with high intensity storms and high evaporation rates. The integration of a physically-based distributed model with a geographic information system represents a valuable tool in water resources management. This dissertation is composed of three papers focused on 1) Alternative Climate Data Sources for Distributed Hydrological Modelling on a Daily Basis, 2) Evaluating sensitivity analysis and auto-calibration of a semi-distributed hydrological model for two semi-arid watersheds 3) Hydrological modelling of some high flow events from recently gauged semi-arid watersheds using KINEROS2. The first chapter aims to develop a protocol of creating spatially and temporaly homogenized alternative climate datasets for precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and solar radiation. The study also compared the use of different precipitation data sources i.e., MPE Stage IV, NARR, PERSIANN, and ground station precipitation in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. The model was applied to the Mimbres River basin located in New Mexico, USA for the period from 2003-2006. Results show that using the Signal Peak climate station as a source of precipitation gave the highest Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) of 0.814. The second chapter discuses the application of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to the Embudo Creek and the Jemez River watersheds located in northern New Mexico (USA) for the period from 2004 to 2008. The study evaluated the model performance, the auto-calibration and the sensitivity analysis. The auto-sensitivity was compared to the visual inspection of simulated and observed hydrographs, and the parameters produced from these two methods, in addition to all 27 flow parameters, were used in the model calibration. Results show that the highest NSE value was 0.687 when using the parameters produced from the visual judgment for the Embudo Creek. However it was 0.564 and 0.552 when the SSQ and the visual inspection were used for the Jemez River, respectively. The third chapter discuses the use of the Kinematic Runoff and Erosion Model (K1NEROS2) to simulate the flow from three semi-arid watersheds located in southern New Mexico ; i.e., Picacho, Placitas and Rincon watersheds for thirteen events. These events were recorded from 2008 to 2010 in which there were two events for Picacho, five events for Placitas and six events for Rincon. Results show that KINEROS produced a simulated flow very close to the measured one with NSE ranges from 0.935-0.946, 0.364-0.975 and 0.374-0.946 for Picacho, Placitas and Rincon watersheds, respectively. Spatially distributed hydrological models are valuable tools to simulate the flow from semi-arid watersheds, but the user needs full knowledge of the model components and the watershed characteristics.

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Page publiée le 31 décembre 2011, mise à jour le 11 novembre 2018