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Wageningen University (2011)

Dryland resources, livelihoods and institutions : diversity and dynamics in use and management of gum and resin trees in Ethiopia

Woldeamanuel, Teshale

Titre : Dryland resources, livelihoods and institutions : diversity and dynamics in use and management of gum and resin trees in Ethiopia

Auteur : Woldeamanuel, Teshale

Université de soutenance : Wageningen University

Grade  : PhD thesis 2011

Rsumé partiel
Dry woodlands comprise the largest forest resources in Ethiopia. An important feature of these forests is their richness in Acacia, Boswellia and Commiphora (ABC) species that produce gum and resin. Gums/resins significantly contribute to rural livelihoods, the national economy, and ecosystem stability. Their contribution to local livelihoods is in terms of both cash income and subsistence value. In different parts of the country they contribute up to one-third of the annual household income. Currently, an estimated US2 million gum and resin are consumed locally, the rest is exported. During the 2007/08 fiscal year, Ethiopia earned a revenue of about US.7 million from this export. However, the woodlands and the ABC species are under intense pressure. Especially in the traditional production areas in north Ethiopia the pressure is high and the policies that were enacted to shape their use and management have not been very effective. The main objective of this study is to investigate how gum and resin utilization and management is carried out in the drylands of Ethiopia and what processes affect this. The following four questions were addressed : (i) What types of gum-resin woodland management and production systems are present in Ethiopia and how are they related to the land-use and socio-political conditions ?, (ii) What dynamic processes in institutional arrangements and gum-resin production and management have occurred in various regions of Ethiopia ? ; (iii) How do multi-level formal and informal institutions interact and affect gum and resin production and management ?, and (iv) How does gumresin utilization fits into the livelihoods strategies of households in the study areas ? The study is based on a multi-theoretical approach giving attention to both diversity and dynamics in ABC woodlands production systems, institutional diversity and interaction regarding the governance of ABC resources, and the role of gum and resin in the livelihoods strategies of the households. The study design consisted of a comparative case study of three regions in north (Abergelle), northwest (Metema and Quara), and south Ethiopia (Borana). The three locations are characterized by ecological and socio-economic differences as well as a different history of gum and resin production. A two-phase research approach consisting of a base-line survey and a systematic household survey was used. The base-line survey served to assess the local socio-economic, institutional and land-use conditions ; data were collected through open interviews with groups and key informants. The household survey served to obtain further detailed information on the ABC production conditions and the role of the products at household level. The survey included 327 respondents ; it was follow-up by feedback meetings with groups of participants to check and validate the main issues that emerged from it. The qualitative data from key informant interviews and focus group discussion were transcribed, categorized, and interpreted. The data from household survey was analysed using descriptive statistics and mean comparisons in SPSS.

Mots clés : forest trees - gum plants - acacia - boswellia - commiphora - non-wood forest products - forestry - forest exploitation - forest management - ethiopia

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Page publiée le 20 mai 2012, mise à jour le 29 mai 2022