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Universitetet i Agder : University of Agder (2009)

Transition from subsistence to monetary economy- a counterdiscourse to mainstream development strategies : case study from Samburu distict, Kenya

Lesamana, Astrid Melissa Jocelyn

Titre : Transition from subsistence to monetary economy- a counterdiscourse to mainstream development strategies : case study from Samburu distict, Kenya

Auteur : Lesamana, Astrid Melissa Jocelyn

Université de soutenance : Universitetet i Agder : University of Agder

Grade : Master’s theses in Development Management 2009

Résumé
The present thesis is a case study with aim of performing an investigation of the process unfolding from the subsistence to a monetary economy. It is juxtaposed to counter mainstream development strategies amongst the Samburu people in Samburu District, Kenya. The objective has been trying to analyze the perceptions, ideas, transition- stages and patterns amongst the Samburu people as well as the reveal negative consequences that can occur from implementation of development and modernization strategies. The Samburu people are classified as an indigenous population (IPACC 2007). Indigenous people around the world have often one unfortunate thing in common ; negative outcomes from modernization and assimilation processes. While the Samburu people at the first glance appears to be a rather static and intact example of preservation of indigenous cultures, it is of course not true as all cultures have traces and evidence of changes occurring in their livelihoods and traditions (Spencer 1997). Since they usually have a different holistic worldview than the majority of the world’s population, including development organizations, it is important to have bear in mind while creating and implementing development strategies in such communities. Through a thorough chapter of theoretical framework and literature review, the common discourses on indigenous people, pastoralism and development are discussed. Theories and concepts forming the basis for this analysis are also examined in the same chapter. Common researches on pastoralist communities have mainly concluded that they are maintaining a practice which leads to environmental degradation (Spencer 1997 ; McCabe 1997). But and loss is also one of the main issues proven negative among indigenous people. Populations relying on economic and social systems founded on natural resources are indeed more fragile to development initiatives and land loss than those who mainly rely on purchased goods (Survival international 2007). The thesis reveals that a historically forced first stage of transition to monetary economy indeed changed the Samburu people. By being introduced to development strategies that are founded on a monetary economy, many of have become marginalized in terms of a monetary poverty which often bear negative consequences such as prostitution, alcoholism, crime and violence. While solely depending on pastoralism and subsistence economy, these outcomes were rarely occurring. Five different locations in Kenya have been subject to this research, four of them located in Samburu District ; Nairimirimo, Maralal, Barsaloi and Archers Post while the fifth research areas was Mtwapa, Mombasa. A mixed method consisting of both qualitative and quantitative methodology has been applied in the thesis. The chapter on empirical findings and analysis is divided into four main sections. They analyse and discuss various mainstream development strategies and modernization processes which have had negative results on the Samburus but commonly are irreversible. Mainstream development strategies in this thesis are associated with sedentary issues, urbanization, agricultural expansion, education, commercialization, business entrepreneurship and tourism

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