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Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (2010)

Determinación de normas nutrimentales en nopal (Opuntia ficus–indica L.)

Blanco Macías, Fidel

Titre : Determinación de normas nutrimentales en nopal (Opuntia ficus–indica L.)

Auteur : Blanco Macías, Fidel

Université de soutenance : Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon

Grade : DOCTOR EN CIENCIAS AGRÍCOLAS CON ORIENTACIÓN EN AGUA–SUELO 2010

Résumé
The species Opuntia ficus–indica L. is growing in 25 countries for its fruit (cactus pear), young cladodes (stems or „nopalitos‟) and mature cladodes. Mexico is the only country with commercial production of „nopalitos‟ of O. ficus–indica L. covering 12.041 ha. The production was 728.940 ton in 2009, with annual mean yields ranging from 09.03 to 99.93 ton ha–1, and an overall average of 64.33 ton ha–1. This great variability of annual mean yield is associated with a wide range of farming systems that differ in terms of crop management practices such as fertilization, a labor closely related to satisfy the nutritional requirements of cultivated species. Preliminary nutrient norms for O. ficus–indica L. have been developed through the compositional nutrient diagnosis (CND) approach, however, it is unknown their reliability. In this regard, a database (n = 360) of yield (biomass) and nutrient concentrations of N, P, K, Ca and Mg from an experiment established at El Orito, Zacatecas, Mexico during April 1999 and carried out on, was used to develop nutritional standards through the boundary–line technique and compared with CND norms, as reported in the scientific literature to determine its reliability. The Pearson correlation coefficient was involved, too, with the aim of identifying significant nutrient interactions. Second-degree functions adjusted the boundary lines in the cases of N, P, K, Ca and Mg. The standards of the boundary–line approach for O. ficus–indica L. are N = 7.13 g kg–1, P = 3.19 g kg–1 K = 44.39 g kg–1, Ca = 38.09 g kg–1 and Mg = 17.29 g kg–1, whereas the sufficiency ranges to 95 % yield are 8.41–20.28 g kg–1 for N, 2.44–4.22 g kg–1 for P, 38.23–50.76 g kg–1 for K, 31.82–45.15 g kg–1 for Ca and 14.3–20.91 g kg–1 for Mg. The lower and higher values of the sufficiency ranges to 95% yield are as reliable as nutrient norms developed through the CND approach. Yield is significantly (p ≤ 0.05) xiii dependent of N, Mg, Ca and K concentrations in cladodes of one–year old. The interactions between K and P, Ca and P, and Mg and P have a positive effect on yield. Interactions between P and N, Mg and N, N Ca and negatively affect the production of biomass.

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