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Freie Universität Berlin (2007)

The prevalence of bacterial and protozoal intestinal pathogens in suckling camel calves in Northern Kenya

Glücks, Ilona Viktoria

Titre : The prevalence of bacterial and protozoal intestinal pathogens in suckling camel calves in Northern Kenya

Prävalenz von bakteriellen und protozoären Darmpathogenen in Kamelkälbern in Nord Kenia

Auteur : Glücks, Ilona Viktoria

Université de soutenance : Freie Universität Berlin

Grade : Doctor of Veterinary Medicine 2007

Résumé partiel
This study was conducted in order to investigate the prevalence of bacterial and protozoal intestinal pathogens in camel calves up to twelve weeks of age in Northern Kenya. A point prevalence study was conducted to describe the existing intestinal pathogens according to age groups and health status and to compare their occurrence between two camel management systems. A longitudinal study was carried out in the ranch management system in order to strengthen the findings of the point prevalence study and to describe the age prevalence of the existing pathogens more comprehensively. Point prevalence study Of the 229 individual camel calves sampled in both management systems, 67.7% were healthy, 23.1% diseased, exhibiting diarrhoea, 6.6% convalescent and 2.2% dead. A higher percentage of camel calves suffering from diarrhoea were found in pastoralist herds (31.9%) as compared to ranch herds (19.2%). Looking at the age prevalence of camel calves suffering from diarrhoea there was a peak within the second and third week of age in both management systems. Of 197 individual camel calves investigated for parasitic infections, 6.6% were shedding Isospora sp. and Strongyloides sp. while only 4.6% were excreting Strongyle sp. eggs. Isospora sp. excretion was more prevalent in calves in pastoralist herds (12.9%) as compared to ranch herds (3.7%). Strongyloides sp. and Strongyle sp. were both more frequently isolated from pastoralist herds (9.7% and 6.5%) than from ranch herds (4.4% and 3.7%). Isospora sp. was found in 23% of calves suffering from diarrhoea. 92% of all calves shedding Isospora sp. suffered from diarrhoea. Excretion of Isospora sp. infection was most prevalent from the second week till the seventh week of age but no shedding was diagnosed at an older age. Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated in 26.9% (n=119) of calves sampled. In 19.1% (n=226), Salmonella sp. was isolated, while in 97.5% (n=200) E. coli was present. The point prevalences of K. pneumoniae and Salmonella sp. were particularly high in the first three weeks of age. No K. pneumoniae was isolated from camel calves older than six weeks while Salmonella sp. infection was constantly present up to the twelfth week of age. E. coli was constantly present in all age groups. There was no difference in K. pneumoniae point prevalences between the two management systems. Point prevalence of Salmonella sp. infections was similar in both management systems with a peak during the first three weeks of age. No Salmonella sp. was detected in ranch herds after the ninth week of age while there was constant excretion of the pathogen in pastoralist herds. Longitudinal study For the longitudinal study, a total of 323 samples were taken from 86 individual camel calves belonging to ranch herds. Category A camel calves (60.5%) were never recorded with diarrhoea while Category B camel calves (39.5%) were recorded with diarrhoea at least once during the observation period. In Category B 7% were dead calves with previous diarrhoea history.

Mots Clés : Camels, calves, diarrhoea, mortality, Isospora, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, pastoralism, farm management, Kenya

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Page publiée le 2 novembre 2012, mise à jour le 4 novembre 2018