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Accueil du site → Master → Etats Unis → 2012 → El Niño Southern Oscillation Influences on Precipitation, Discharge, and Nutrient Concentrations in the Upper Salt River Watershed in Arizona

Arizona State University (2012)

El Niño Southern Oscillation Influences on Precipitation, Discharge, and Nutrient Concentrations in the Upper Salt River Watershed in Arizona

Sversvold, Darren

Titre : El Niño Southern Oscillation Influences on Precipitation, Discharge, and Nutrient Concentrations in the Upper Salt River Watershed in Arizona

Auteur : Sversvold, Darren

Université de soutenance : Arizona State University

Grade : M.S. Biology 2012

Résumé
Many studies over the past two decades examined the link between climate patterns and discharge, but few have attempted to study the effects of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on localized and watershed specific processes such as nutrient loading in the Southwestern United States. The Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) is used to describe the state of the ENSO, with positive (negative) values referring to an El Niño condition (La Niña condition). This study examined the connection between the MEI and precipitation, discharge, and total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in the Upper Salt River Watershed in Arizona. Unrestricted regression models (UMs) and restricted regression models (RMs) were used to investigate the relationship between the discharges in Tonto Creek and the Salt River as functions of the magnitude of the MEI, precipitation, and season (winter/summer). The results suggest that in addition to precipitation, the MEI/season relationship is an important factor for predicting discharge. Additionally, high discharge events were associated with high magnitude ENSO events, both El Niño and La Niña. An UM including discharge and season, and a RM (restricting the seasonal factor to zero), were applied to TN and TP concentrations in the Salt River. Discharge and seasonality were significant factors describing the variability in TN in the Salt River while discharge alone was the significant factor describing TP. TN and TP in Roosevelt Lake were evaluated as functions of both discharge and MEI. Some significant correlations were found but internal nutrient cycling as well as seasonal stratification of the water column of the lake likely masks the true relationships. Based on these results, the MEI is a useful predictor of discharge, as well as nutrient loading in the Salt River Watershed through the Salt River and Tonto Creek. A predictive model investigating the effect of ENSO on nutrient loading through discharge can illustrate the effects of large scale climate patterns on smaller systems.

Mots Clés : Biology / Hydrologic sciences / El Nino / ENSO / MEI / Nutrients / Upper Salt River Watershed

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Page publiée le 8 novembre 2012, mise à jour le 8 avril 2019