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Propuesta de un modelo operativo para la estimación de la evapotranspiración

Eduardo Rivas, Raúl

Titre : Propuesta de un modelo operativo para la estimación de la evapotranspiración.

Auteur : Eduardo Rivas, Raúl

Université de soutenance : Universitat de València

Grade : Tesi Doctoral 2004

Among the hydrological variables, evapotranspiration is one of the most important. Its assessment, with an acceptable level of precision, is of fundamental value for climate change and hydrological studies, climate models, and food production. Of utmost importance is the estimation of space-time variations of the evapotranspiration at the regional level. There are nowadays models able to reproduce the complex process of evapotranspiration at the regional level, that are based on one-dimensional schemes which describe the radiation, conveyance and transport mechanisms that are influenced by the surface temperature. Those models substitute the surface temperature from remote sensing techniques by the air-dynamic temperature, and the evapotranspiration is calculated as the residual term of the energy balance equation. The application of such models is constrained by the availability of specific instruments at the measuring stations distributed worldwide. It also has to be taken into account that the application of those models is not an easy task and that it requires special training and abilities by the operator. This research presents a simple model that allows the estimation of the evapotranspiration at the regional level from meteorological data measured at conventional stations and surface temperature from satellite images. The model has a simple physical basis and requires the estimation of two local parameters that depend on the meteorological conditions of the lower portion of the atmosphere. The main assumption is that the surface temperature describes all variations registered at the first few meters of the atmosphere. In order to apply the model, data on temperature, air relative humidity, wind velocity, solar radiation, and surface temperature (from images) are required. The operational equation is as follows:where a and b are local parameters. The equation proposed has been validated in two regions of central Argentina. One of them has a humid climate with a low water deficit, whereas the second has a dry climate and relevant water deficit. The model has made use of 114 images of NOAA´s AVHRR sensor. In both cases, the model results have been compared with the data measured at local stations. As a result of that, it was found that the model sub-estimate the reference evapotranspiration (4% in humid regime and 5 % in dry regime) and, results with estimation errors of ±0,6 mm d-1 (humid region) and of ±0,7 mm d-1 (dry region). Given so, evapotranspiration maps for both regions were generated that reproduce realistically changes in the meteorological conditions at each station and among them. Lastly, the application of the model at a global scale is shown. To do so, the model parameters were calculated for 69 meteorological stations worldwide, located al various climatic conditions (cold, temperate and tropical).

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Page publiée le 28 novembre 2012, mise à jour le 12 février 2019