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Gansu Agricultural University (2004)

A Study on Integrated Planting Technology of High-yielding and Quality Chinese Jujube in Arid Desert Areas

来锡福; Lai Xi Fu

Titre : A Study on Integrated Planting Technology of High-yielding and Quality Chinese Jujube in Arid Desert Areas

Auteur : 来锡福; Lai Xi Fu

Grade : Master’s Theses 2004

Université : Gansu Agricultural University

Résumé partiel
On the basis of studies on introduction and growth of cultivars of Chinese jujube(Zizyphus jujuba)over years,a mumber of varieties suitable for desert area had been selected.The reproduction including tissue culture,cuttage(shoots and roots),grafting etc.,and growth techniques such as fertilization,density,flower and fruit preservation,disease and pest prevention,moisture retention.The results were as follows:1.Selection of cultivarsOn the basis of observations of 216 cultivars collected in a Chinese jujube variety garden set up by Wuwei Forestry Research Institute,70 of the cultivars,which had good characters,had been selected for further observation on their development,economic character,production and so forth.Of the 70,20 had been selected for desert area.Among the 20,the cultivars suit shelter-belt for farmland in desert area were(minly small-typed for dry fruist):Bachizao,Banzao,Shanxibenzao,Linzexiaozao,Shandongtangzao,Shuangbanz ao,(Minqinyuanzao)those for high yielding and dense-planting for desert area encompassed,Shanxilizao,Shupujidanzao ;those for eating and dry fruits referred to Ming shandazao,Kongfusucuizao,Shandonglizao,Junzao,Shandongdacui,Yuanlizao ;those for eating and fun contained:Longzao,Shanxilongzao,Chahuzao,Mopanzaoand those for processing involved:Jinzao.2.Studies on reproduction such as tissue cultureBased on the research into reproduction in vitro of Minqinyuanzao,an explant,which suits most reproduction in vitro—shoots for soilless culture in early spring,had been selected ;the starting substrate was H94+IBAO.1mg/L+NG15mg/L,a solid substrate,with addition of nutrient solution H65.The relay substrate was H66+NG20mg/L+IBAO.1mg/L.The relay culture opan was 30 days with an addition coefficient of 4.The substrate for rooting was H94+NG38mg/L+IABO.1mg/Lwith a rooting ratio of 90%.The tissue was cultured for 20 days in the tissue culture lab and then for another 10 days in the green house,after that opened the lids of the flasks for the young shoot’ adaptation for 34 days,finally transplanted the shoots to the in the pure sand in the open field as a result the survival rate could reach 96%.Takingthe tissue-cultured shoots as stock,root cuttage and shoots cuttage were easy to survive.The remanent seedling of diameter more than 0.3cm after seedling-lifting could reach 95.5%in cuttage survival rate without any hormone treatment,ln shoot cuttage,the survival rate of the shoots treated with 500mg/L IBA solution could reach 96.5%.Roots from regular seedlings(non-tissue-cultured seedlings)of other cultivars in the open field could reach 85.3%in survival rate with a 700900mg/L IBA treatment.In the seedling cultivation from grafting,taking Zizyphus jujuba var.inermwas or tissue-cultured as a stock,a grafting knack(notch graft)had been formulated :"fresh,unknitted,well-jointed,tight,quick andwet".Studies on reproduction of Zizyphus jujuba cultivation that was suitable for the arid desert areas were formulated.3.Studies on high-yielding technology for Chinese jujube(1)udies on the relationship between early biological yield,economic output and fertilizer application,planting density of Chinese jujube showed that dense-planting and the addition of fertilizer were an effective way for its high-yielding.The appropriate density of the trees planted in the early period was 222444 plants per mu.5years after a planting the average yield of fresh Zizyphus jujuba was about 413kg/mu and the maximum 786kg/mu.The suitable fertilizer application was:20-27g of pure phosphorus and 40-45g of pure nitrogen for earch plant of 2-year-old Zizyphus jujuba ;40-50g of pure phosphorus and 81-110g of pure nitrogen for each plant of the 3-year-old ;61-91g of pure phosphorus and 123-182g of pure nitrogen for each plant of the 4 or 5 year-old.(2)The research on crop cultivation with water conservation in arid desert areas showed:covering the Zizyphus jujuba plantation could abviously reduce water evaporation,raise the utilization efficiency of water in the soil,thus the growth of Chinese jujuba could be accelerated.Wheat straw was the best material for covering land,and then plastic film ;the water content in the covered soil was 50%and 54%higher respectively,and biomass of new branches 31.3cm and 26.1cm higher respectively than the check plot.So land covering was one of the measures to conserve water and improve Zizyphus jujuba’s yield.(3)The research on artificial raising fruit setting showed:the fruit setting of Zizyphus jujuba could be rasied with application of some biotic hormones and microelements, moreover,the coloring was earlier,which was helpful to improve the yield.As for biotic hormones,15mg/L of gibberellion was the best,the fruit seeting rate was 3.286 times of that without application of biotic hormone ;as for microelements,0.3%of sodium molybdate was the best,the fruit-setting rate was 2.73 times of that without application of microelements.(4)The research on the prevention of main pest diseases showed:the main pest-diseases attacking Zizyphus jujuba were gall mites,Sucra jujuba Chu,Ancylwas Sativa Liu,Carposina niponenswas Walsingham,Jujuba wiche’s broom,Jujuba rust etc.Especially,gall mites and Jujuba wiche’s broom always caused a redution of yield,even no yield.To control Jujuba wiche’s broom,the sick trees must be completely eliminated ;as for killing gall mites,lime sulphur solution of 50Be was to be sprayed before germination,then at the early period of leafing(after germination),lime sulphur solution of 0.3-0.50Be should be timely sprayed and the effect was the best.(5)The main factors limiting the good quality and high yield production of Chinese jujuba were:water,temperature,moisture and altitude were the main climatic and environmental limiting factors.(6)Based on the studies mentioned above,a series of integrated technologies of Zizyphus jujuba cultivation that was suitable for the arid desert areas were formulated.3.Assessment of good quality and high yield technologies on Zizyphus jujuba cultivation in arid esert areas

Mots clés : Arid Desert Wereas; Zizyphus jujuba; High-yielding and Quality;

Présentation (CNKI)

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