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Universidade Estadual de Campinas (2009)

Inserção de um modelo agro-industrial de pequena escala na cadeia de produção do biodiesel baseado na cultura do girassol e no segmento agrícola familiar do semi-árido potiguar

Evangelista Francisco Junior

Titre : Inserção de um modelo agro-industrial de pequena escala na cadeia de produção do biodiesel baseado na cultura do girassol e no segmento agrícola familiar do semi-árido potiguar

Auteur : Evangelista Junior Francisco

Université de soutenance : Universidade Estadual de Campinas

Grade : Doutorado 2009

Résumé
Along the recent years, in many countries energy priorities have been put on the security of supply and on the environmental issues concerned with emissions of Greenhouse Gases – GHG. In this regard, a special attention has been put on biofuels, and, among others, biodiesel that has the potential of displacing mineral diesel. In December 2004, Brazil has created the National Program of Biodiesel Production and Use – PNPB (acronism related to the Portuguese expression), with priority on social aspects and on regional development. In this regard, the socalled Social Fuel Stamp was created and l tax exemption is given to biodiesel production based on raw materials produced by family farmers ; the production based on farmers located in less developed areas – e.g., North, Northeast and the Semi-Arid Region – are eligible for larger benefits. However, the current production based on family farmers is constrained by the lack of credit opportunities, very low level of technology use, small-scale production and the production just for family’s consumption ; as consequence, family farmers have been unable to produce without governmental assistance and financial support. The aim of this thesis is the evaluation of a small-scale agro-industrial model in the context of the PNPB. The specific focus of this thesis is the production of sunflower based on family farmers in the Semi-Arid region in the Rio Grande do Norte state (Northeast region of Brazil). The research is based on an agricultural project in which about 1,200 ha were planted (with sunflower) by 198 families, and on an extraction unit of viii ix oil with capacity of processing 300 kg seeds/hour. This thesis presents three main results. First, a survey was done with the farmers, identifying their profiles, their practices, in which extent they were engaged with the project and their motivations. The second main result is regarding the energy balance of the agricultural and the extraction stages, while the third result is concerned with the economic analysis of the two production stages. The results show that in less developed regions, agricultural projects such the one analyzed in this thesis, even in small-scale, give a significant contribution to the families’ wealth, and, potentially, can also enhance life quality. However, public policies are necessary in order to foster social organization, raising leaderships, and promote production diversification ; production diversification is necessary in order to enlarge the incomes and motivate people to overcome the current stagnation stage. Sunflower has the potential to generate income to the family farmers, but the local production conditions, such as low mechanization level and lack of seeds of good quality, need to be improved, aiming at take advantage of the existing potentialities. The energy balance presented in this thesis is positive, both regarding the agricultural stage (i.e., the seed production, with energy ratios results between 3.7 and 4.1) and up to the extraction stage in the supply chain (energy ratio equal to 1,4). According to the hypotheses taken into account in this thesis, from the economic point of view the best option is the extraction of oil, in order to also take the benefits of meal’s commercialization, rather than only sell the seeds. However, family farmers can significantly enlarge their incomes in case of meal’s use by theirselves, as animal’s feed. Honey production is also a good alternative for income’s enlargement.

Mots clés : Biodiesel ; Biocombustíveis ; Balanço energético ; Agricultura familiar ; Girassol ; Biodiesel ; Biofuels ; Energy balance ; Family farmers ; Sunflower

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Page publiée le 18 juin 2013, mise à jour le 5 juillet 2017