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Wageningen University (2013)

Land and Livestock Management in the Mountains of Maghreb

Rocha Correa Pedro Fiz

Titre : Land and Livestock Management in the Mountains of Maghreb

Auteur : Rocha Correa Pedro Fiz

Université de soutenance : Wageningen University

Grade : Master Thesis 2013

There is still little known about the effects of global change. Dryland Mountains are the ideal laboratory to isolate and study the variables influencing both the climate change effects and the direct human impacts. This study tries to delve into one of the most fragile kind of ecosystems all over the world. Which are the main factors these fragile ecosystems deal with ? And how policies attach the situation ? The UNFAO implemented some projects in the area to face the effects of global change. Pastoral communities are the natural keepers of these ecosystems, and remain among the most politically and economic marginalized groups. Transhumant cultures find themselves facing insecurity in multiple dimensions, including land, political, legal, food, environmental and physical insecurity. Pastoral marginalization comes from global processes involving structural adjustment, policy modernization and economic liberalization. These global processes boosted the sedentarization of nomadic and semi-nomadic populations together with their herds, generating conflicts between land uses and sustainability. Common property resources (traditionally managed by customary law) are commonplace in the Atlas Mountains, and unclear private user rights for individual farms encourage short-term resource exploitation rather than long-term conservation. Moreover, changes in land tenure alter the behaviour of individuals and local communities, leading to land degradation (e.g. overgrazing following the settlement of nomads). Key constraints stemming from the lack of tenure, promotion of privatization, food insecurity and minimal health and educational services must be addressed to ensure that the synergistic relationship between livestock-based livelihoods and environment could be productive and sustainable.

Mots clés : Dryland Mountain Ecosystem, agro-pastoralism, Atlas range, land tenure, Berbers, climate change.

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Page publiée le 28 novembre 2013, mise à jour le 18 octobre 2018