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Kansas State University (2012)

Effect of planting geometry, hybrid maturity, and population density on yield and yield components in sorghum

Pidaran, Kalaiyarasi

Titre : Effect of planting geometry, hybrid maturity, and population density on yield and yield components in sorghum

Auteur : Pidaran, Kalaiyarasi

Université de soutenance : Kansas State University

Grade : Master of Science 2012

Résumé
Prior studies indicate clumped planting can increase grain sorghum yield up to 45% under water deficit conditions by reducing tiller number, increasing radiation use efficiency, and preserving soil water for grain fill. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of planting geometry on sorghum grain yield. The field study was conducted in seven environments with two sorghum hybrids, four populations, and two planting geometries. Crop responses included leaf area index, yield, and components of yield. Delayed planting decreased yield by 39%, and a later maturing hybrid increased yield, relative to an early hybrid, by 11% under water sufficiency. Clumped planting increased the fraction of fertile culms (culms which formed panicles) from 5-14%. It reduced the number of culms m-2 by 12% under water limiting conditions (at one of two locations) but increased culms m-2 16% under water sufficiency. Seeds per panicle and seed weight generally compensated for differences in panicles m-2, which were related to different planting population densities. Although agronomic characteristics of hybrids varying in maturity have been widely studied, little information exists concerning their physiological differences. Therefore, the objective of the greenhouse study was to determine if stomatal resistance, leaf temperature, and leaf chlorophyll content differed between two DeKalb grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] hybrids. They were DKS 36-16 and DKS 44-20, of medium-early and medium maturity, respectively, when grown under field conditions in Kansas. Seeds were planted in a greenhouse. Stomatal resistance and leaf temperature were measured 55 days after planting with a Decagon Devices (Pullman, WA) diffusion porometer, and chlorophyll content was measured 119 days after planting with a Konica Minolta (Osaka, Japan) SPAD chlorophyll meter. The two hybrids did not differ in stomatal resistance, leaf temperature, chlorophyll content, height, and dry weight. Their difference in maturity was not evident under the greenhouse conditions. Future work needs to show if hybrids of different maturities vary in physiological characteristics

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