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Universidad Complutense de Madrid (2013)

Efecto de la aplicación de residuos orgánicos biodegradables y el clima mediterráneo sobre el ciclo del carbono en un suelo agrícola calcáreo

González Ubierna, Sergio

Titre : Efecto de la aplicación de residuos orgánicos biodegradables y el clima mediterráneo sobre el ciclo del carbono en un suelo agrícola calcáreo

Auteur : González Ubierna, Sergio

Université de soutenance : Universidad Complutense de Madrid

Grade : Thesis (PhD) 2013

Résumé
Climate change and the future scenarios derivate from the fact they have focused the attention on the need to adopt policies and measures that mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. The Mediterranean will be one of the most affected areas by these changes, and their soils, where respiration is the main carbon loss process, all these changes will generate a significant increase in CO2 emissions. Thus, any activity or management over these soils must take into account the impact on their carbon emissions. In this sense, although the application of biodegradable organic residues in agricultural systems is a common practice, has not taken into account the impact of this management on soil CO2 emissions. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to evaluate the effect of the Application of biodegradable organic residues in agricultural calcareous soils on the soil carbon cycle under Mediterranean environments. For this objective, it has been estimated the impact on organic and inorganic soil carbon forms ; it also evaluated the relationship between soil respiration and climatic factors in Mediterranean conditions, by applying empirical models to data collected with a gauge field Li‐COR 8100 ; and how the application of the residues modified these relationships. Our results have shown an increase of organic carbon in all its forms. There has been seen an increase in the proportion of labile forms in autumn and winter, when microbial activity is reduced by low temperatures, due to increased consumption of labile forms in relation to recalcitrant ones at high emperatures. Soil moisture was a key factor in this process. With soluble carbon forms, reducing labile carbon values was explained by the consumption and subsequent mineralization by soil microbiota. This rapid mineralization resulted in a process of "priming effect", or explosion of soil respiration. The recalcitrant fraction suffered a slower evolution, not being as conditioned by climatic factors. This carbon fraction has been postulated as a reservoir of carbon in the soil, in any climate change strategies. However, our results showed that only the amendment with municipal solid waste compost could work in this regard.

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